1 Professor, Department of Foreign Languages and Linguistics, Shiraz University

2 Associate professor, Department of Foreign Languages and Linguistics, Shiraz University

3 Visiting Professor, Teaching English as a Foreign Language Group, Farhangian University, Shahid Bahonar Branch of Shiraz


Writing academic texts is a challenging endeavour for novice L2 writers, which causes them to rely heavily on the original texts. Some studies have differentiated intentional acts of fraud (like plagiarism) from patchwriting which they claim is unintentional source text reliance. However, others have a negative view toward it. The present study explores L2 graduate student writers and their professors' perspectives about these different writing practices and how they may work for or against developing professional writing expertise in a discipline. Survey questionnaires and interviews were used to collect data. The results were analysed through calculating frequencies and percentages as well as inductive data analysis for transcribed interviews. The results showed that many graduate students used patchwriting in their attempts to write academic texts unintentionally and intuitively. The reasons identified for patchwriting were students' lack of confidence to write independently, inability to paraphrase or fear of not expressing the writer's message thoroughly, and, in some cases, the writers' intention to get around plagiarism detection softwares. However, both students and their instructors had negative views about patchwriting. They believed that writing strategies like patchwriting could not lead to professional writing practices in a discipline. More importantly, the students seemed to continue this practice all through their studies, which may be a sign of not receiving enough instruction and feedback in this regard. The role of explicit teaching is emphasized in making students familiar with the differences between paraphrasing and patchwriting.


Article Title [Persian]

نظرات دانشجویان تحصیلات تکمیلی رشته زبان و اساتید انها درباره ی رفتارهای نگارش تخصصی دانشجویان: عاریه نویسی یا دستبرد علمی؟

Authors [Persian]

  • ناصر رشیدی 1
  • محمد رحیمی 2
  • فرزانه دهقان 3

1 استاد، گروه زبانهای خارجی و زبانشناسی، دانشگاه شیراز

2 دانشیار، گروه زبانهای خارجی و زبانشناسی، دانشگاه شیراز

3 مدرس مدعو، گروه آموزش زبان انگلیسی، دانشگاه فرهنگیان، پردیس شهید باهنر شیراز

Abstract [Persian]

این مطالعه به بررسی اثر تفاوت های فردی (IDS) مانند مهارت زبانی، جنس و سن در برنامه ریزی دقیق و بسیط همزمان تولید کنشهای گفتاری معذرت خواهی در گفتمان نهادی پرداخته است. بدین منظور، 187 فراگیران زبان انگلیسی ایرانی    در سه سطح دانشگاهی (مقطع کارشناسی، فوق لیسانس و دکترا) در این پژوهش شرکت کردند. داده های مقطعی برای مقایسه و تجزیه و تحلیل عبارات عذر خواهی تولید شده توسط زبان آموزان در سطوح مختلف مهارتی جمع آوری شد. یک آنالیز سه وجهی  بین گروهی (ANOVA) تفاوت های کمی بین سه گروه را با توجه به تفاوت های فردی آنها مشخص کرد. علاوه بر این، تجزیه و تحلیل کیفی و عمقی موارد مورد آزمون و گزارشات کلامی گذشته نگر (RVRs) ارایه  شده توسط شرکت کنندگان، اطلاعات تکمیلی در مورد مجموعه ی فرآیندها، وضعیت زبانی و الگوهای مورد استفاده ی دنبال آموزان در هنگام ساخت یک عبارت عذرخواهی در زبان دوم را نشان داد. جنبه های فرهنگی اجتماعی، اجتماعی روانی و اجتماعی عاطفی شرایط گفتمان نه تنها بر انتخاب جوانب کاربردی و اجتماعی زبان دانشجویان تاثیرگذار است بلکه بر گزینشهای واژگانی و دستوری آنها در طرح ریزی کنش گفتاری معذرت خواهی نیز موثر است.  ظاهرا، میزان استقرار هنجارهای کاربردی زبان دوم بیشتر به انتخاب تا به توانایی زبان آموز است. یکی از مفاهیم عمده آموزشی این مطالعه این است که در تولید هر نوع از ساختارهای کاربردی میانزبانی (ILP) باید تعامل متغیرهای تفاوتهای فردی که به احتمال زیاد در بین مراحل توجه و تولید ساختار مورد نظردخیل است، را در نظر گرفت.

Keywords [Persian]

  • عذر خواهی
  • کاربرد میانزبانی
  • گفتمان نهادی
  • برنامه ریزی همزمان
  • تفاوتهای فردی
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