Document Type : research paper


Department of English Language, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran


Language learning anxiety has gained enormous attention as it has a detrimental role in foreign language learning and creating stress-free contexts for language learning has always been advised. Therefore, being cognizant of strategies to reduce anxiety seems to be of great importance. This study aimed at developing and validating a scale for measuring EFL learners’ preferred strategies for reducing their language learning anxiety (LLA) via adopting an exploratory sequential mixed-methods design. The participants comprised 200 Iranian EFL learners studying at different proficiency levels, selected on a convenience sampling basis. To develop the items for the scale, 30 EFL learners, randomly selected from the initial 200 ones, were asked about their perceived sources of anxiety and their preferred strategies to reduce their LLA. Content analysis of interviews along with the extant theoretical standpoints and empirical literature led to the development of a 13-item scale for measuring EFL learners’ LLA reducing strategies. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses conducted on the collected data also revealed that the developed three-factor model, including metacognitive, social, and tactile dimensions, fits the Iranian EFL learners’ population. The validated questionnaire may be utilised to familiarize EFL learners with strategies of coping with their anxiety and ultimately measure their perceived use of such strategies.


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