Document Type : research paper


Department of English, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran


This study explored the effect of three models of flipped learning through shad application on lexical and grammatical knowledge of Iranian high school EFL learners. 120 male pre-intermediate English learners took part in the study. They were placed in four groups (three experimental and one control) based on their performance on a placement test. The control group received conventional methods of teaching while experimental group one was taught through traditional flipping, experimental group two through demonstration-based instruction, and experimental group three through double-flipped instruction. Data were collected using pretests and posttests of lexical and grammatical knowledge. The results of ANCOVA showed that generally, the learners in the three experimental groups performed better than the control group, suggesting that using flipped instruction was effective in teaching lexical items and grammatical structures. The findings of this study can have valuable implications for those who are involved in learning and teaching English, materials preparation, and curriculum development.


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