Document Type : research paper


1 Department of English Language, Maybod Branch, Islamic Azad University, Maybod, Iran

2 Department of English Language, Qom Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qom, Iran


Critical English for academic purposes (CEAP) has been an attempt to challenge the status quo in English for academic purposes (EAP) education. However, it has not received due attention in the literature. For the same reason, this study concentrated on how the Iranian EAP teachers and students perceived the three key CEAP modules of needs/right analysis, power, and dialogue/hope. As its secondary aim, this study also focused on how much the instructor practiced what they perceived of CEAP in their classrooms. For gathering the quantitative data, the main components of the CEAP framework formed the basis for the preparation and validation of a Likert-type questionnaire to measure the respondents’ perceptions of CEAP. In order to complement the results of the questionnaire data on the perception of CEAP, a semi-structured interview protocol was developed. The results for the first research question showed that both participating groups' opinions of CEAP were quite similar. The discrepancy between teachers’ questionnaire and interview data demonstrated that a praxis breakdown occurred as a result of an imbalance between the EAP teachers' knowledge and practice of CEAP in their classroom. Additionally, the qualitative data analysis showed that there was little contact between ESP teachers and students while developing the EAP curricula and instructional strategies. Students were also viewed as obedient and passive actors, required to carry out the predetermined institutional requirements established by the departments or curriculum designers. The findings of this study have implications for ESP teachers and material developers.


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