Document Type : research paper


1 Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran, Iran

2 Associate Professor of Allameh Tabataba'i University Tehran, Iran

3 Professor of Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran, Iran,

4 Professor of Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran, Iran


This study provides a framework for identifying, designing, and validating a flipped learning pattern to enhance problem- based teaching approach in higher education instructors in teaching the English language. Also, this endeavors to offer a general blueprint for designing a pedagogical pattern as an improvement strategy in teaching and learning English. The present study is an applied and mixed-method research. In the qualitative phase, a systematic review of 137 written and electronic documents was performed to identify the components of the pattern. Besides, in-depth interviews with 32 available and purposeful experts were done to collect data. As a methodology, researchers used inductive qualitative content analysis. To confirm the obtained components, CVR and CVI were performed in quantitative part with 25 available experts. The final influential elements in pattern formation were determined and approved in 6 main components (selected code), 18 sub-components (pivot code), and 94 properties (open code). Based on the results of CVR = 0.9, CVI = 1, and the reliability of the questionnaire r = 0.83, all 118 components were confirmed. The activities before, during, and after the class were separately approved along with the independent activities of the teacher and learner. The results indicated the acceptability of the pattern indicators. It showed that choosing the correct and principled teaching method with conscious design can solve English teaching-learning problems according to the experts’ perspectives. Besides, it not only helps English instructors and learners how to plan but also encourages them to use it in various fields.


Abeysekera, L., & Dawson, P. (2015). Motivation and cognitive load in the flipped classroom: definition, rationale and a call for research. Higher Education Research and Development34(1), 1-14.
Abolhasani, Z., & Safaei Movahhed, S. (2019). Providing a proposed framework for the work and technology curriculum of the middle school with emphasis on flipped classroom pattern. Research in Curriculum Planning16(61), 1-13.
Ahmed, M. A. E. A. S. (2016). The effect of a flipping classroom on writing skill in English as a foreign language and students’ attitude towards flipping. US-China Foreign Language14(2), 98-114.
Alikhani, M., & Nili, A. M. (2015). Flipped classroom, new pedagogical model in e-learning. The first international conference on new research in educational science, psychology and social studies in Iran, Qom.
Alsowat, H. (2016). An EFL flipped classroom teaching model: Effects on English language higher-order thinking skills, student engagement and satisfaction. Journal of Education and Practice, 7(9), 108-121.
Ankeny, C. J., & Krause, S. J. (2014). Flipped biomedical engineering classroom using pencasts and muddiest point web-enabled tools. In 2014 ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition. ‏
Arkhodi Ghalenoei, M., Mirzaei, M. M., & Kareshki, H. (2014). Investigating the basics of self-efficacy theory and its application in education. The First National Conference on Educational Sciences and Psychology, Marvdasht.
Barghi, E., Sahebyar, H., Gol-Mohammadnejad, G. R. (2019). Study the effectiveness of flipped classroom on students’ interactive thinking in second year of high school in math, Journal of innovation and creativity in humanities, spring, 8(4), 33-62.
Bergmann, J., & Sams, A. (2012). Flip your classroom: Reach every student in every class every day. International Society for Technology in Education.
Bergmann, J., & Sams, A. (2014). Flipping for mastery. Educational Leadership71(4), 24-29.
Bergmann, J., Overmyer, J., & Willie, B. (2011). The flipped class: What it is and What it is not. The Daily Riff.
Chen, Y. T., Liou, S., & Chen, L. F. (2019). The relationships among gender, cognitive styles, learning strategies, and learning performance in the flipped classroom. International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction35(4-5), 395-403. ‏
Cheng, L., Ritzhaupt, A. D., & Antonenko, P. (2019). Effects of the flipped classroom instructional strategy on students’ learning outcomes: A meta-analysis. Educational Technology Research and Development, 67(4), 793–824. 
Chou, C. L., Hung, M. L., Tsai, C. W., & Chang, Y. C. (2019). Developing and validating a scale for measuring teachers’ readiness for flipped classrooms in junior high schools. British Journal of Educational Technology51(4), 1420-1435. ‏
Chou, L. Y. (2017). The effect of flipped classroom on self-efficacy and satisfaction of computer auditing. In International Conference on Innovative Mobile and Internet Services in Ubiquitous Computing. Springer. ‏
Chu, T. L., Wang, J., Monrouxe, L., Sung, Y. C., Kuo, C. L., Ho, L. H., & Lin, Y. E. (2019). The effects of the flipped classroom in teaching evidence based nursing: A quasi-experimental study. Plos One14(1), e0210606-e0210606.
Dinarvand, A. (2018). Investigating the effect of reverse education mode on the educational aspects of primary school students. Fifth Psychology International Conference, Educational Sciences and Lifestyl. Qazvin, Iran.
Dincer, A., & Dariyemez, T. (2020). Proficient speakers of English as a foreign language: A focus-group study. IAFOR Journal of Education8(1), 83-99. ‏
Estes, M. D., Ingram, R., & Liu, J. C. (2014). A review of flipped classroom research, practice, and technologies. International HETL Review, 4(7), 1-8.
Khonamri, F., Azizi, M., & Kralik, R. (2020). Using interactive e-based flipped learning to enhance EFL literature students' critical reading. Science for Education Today10(1), 25-42.
Fathi Vajargah, K., Karimi Sabet, M., Javanmardi, M., & Davoudi, S. (2020). A remedy to the misery of language learning efficacy: Flipped classroom. Journal of English Language Teaching and Learning12(26), 125-143. ‏
Fauzi, S. S. M., & Hussain, R. M. R. (2016). Designing instruction for active and reflective learners in the flipped classroom. Malaysian Journal of Learning and Instruction. 13(2), 147-173.
Fethi, K., & Marshall, H. W. (2018). Flipping movies for dynamic engagement. In Innovations in Flipping the Language Classroom. Springer, Singapore. ‏
Goldfried, M. R., & Davison, G G. C. (1976). Clinical behavior theory. Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Golzari, Z., & Attaran, M. (2016). Flipped learning in higher education: Narratives of a Teacher. ‏ Journal of Theory & Practice in Curriculum, 7(4), 81-136.
Guerrero, W. (2017). Flipped classroom and problem-based learning in higher education, Latin-American context. In Conference Proceedings of the Future of Education.
Haghani, F., Rezaei, H., & Eghbali, B. (2016). Flipped classroom: A pedagogical method. Iranian Journal of Medical Education16, 104-119. ‏
Hamdan, N., McKnight, P., & Arfstrom, K. M. (2020). The flipped learning model: a white paper based on the literature review titled a review of flipped learning.
Johnson, L., Adams Becker, S., Estrada, V., & Freeman, A. (2014). NMC horizon report: 2014 K-12 edition. The New Media Consortium.
Jungić, V., Kaur, H., Mulholland, J., & Xin, C. (2015). On flipping the classroom in large first year calculus courses. International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 46(4), 508-520. ‏
Karimi, M., & Hamzavi, R. (2017). The effect of flipped model of instruction on EFL learners’ reading comprehension: Learners’ attitudes in focus. Advances in Language and Literary Studies8(1), 95-103. ‏
Karshki, H., Arkhondi, G. M., Mirzaei, M., (2014). Investigating the theory of self-efficacy and its application in education. National Conference of Educational Science and Psychology.
Khaknejad, H., & Mardkhodai, R. F. (2019). Teaching in reverse class mode on motivation for students’ achievement in English of tenth class of Roshtkhar. Journal of New Achievements in Humanities Studies, 2(15), 85-94.
Kheirābādi, R. (2017). The impact of flipped classroom model on teaching English grammar at 10th grade of high school. Educational Innovations16(4), 141-162. ‏
Khoshnoodi Far, M., Mohajerpour, R., Rahimi, E., Roshani, D., & Zarezadeh, Y. (2019). Comparison between the effects of flipped class and traditional methods of instruction on satisfaction, active participation, and learning level in a continuous medical education course for general practitioners. Scientific Journal of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences24(1), 56-65. ‏
Kronholz, J. (2012). Can Khan move the bell curve to the right? Education Digest, 78(2), 23-30.
Lage, M. J., Platt, G. J., & Treglia, M. (2000). Inverting the classroom: A gateway to creating an inclusive learning environment. The Journal of Economic Education31(1), 30-43. ‏
Lo, C. K. (2017). Toward a flipped classroom instructional model for history education: A call for research. International Journal of Culture and History3(1), 36-43.
Mason, G. S., Shuman, T. R., & Cook, K. E. (2013). Comparing the effectiveness of an inverted classroom to a traditional classroom in an upper-division engineering course. IEEE Transactions on Education56(4), 430-435. ‏
Mazur, E. (2009). Farewell, Lecture? Science, 323, 50-51.
McLaughlin, J. E., Griffin, L. M., Esserman, D. A., Davidson, C. A., Glatt, D. M., Roth, M. T., Gharkholonarehe, N., & Mumper, R. J. (2013). Pharmacy student engagement, performance, and perception in a flipped satellite classroom. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 77(9), 196-196. ‏
Mehring, J., & Leis, A. (2018). Innovations in flipping the language classroom. Innovations in Flipping the Language Classroom: Theories and Practices. Springer.
Merrill, M. D. (2013). First principles of instruction: Identifying and designing effective, efficient and engaging instruction. Pfeiffer. ‏
Jahangiri, P., Saberi, M. K., & Vakilimofrad, H. (2021). Development and psychometric evaluation of the cloud computing acceptance questionnaire for academic libraries. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 47(5), 102395. ‏
Meyer, J., & Land, R. (2006). Overcoming barriers to student understanding: Threshold concepts and troublesome knowledge. Routledge.
Moffett, J. (2015). Twelve tips for “flipping” the classroom. Medical Teacher37(4), 331-336. ‏
Moffett, J., & Mill, A. C. (2014). Evaluation of the flipped classroom approach in a veterinary professional skills course. Advances in Medical Education and Practice. 1(5), 415-425.
Mok, H. N. (2014). Teaching tip: The flipped classroom. Journal of Information Systems Education25(1), 7-11. ‏
Morteza Mehrabani, N. (2003). Introducing the L-D-W-K model for organizing problem solving in the classroom, The Growth of Math Education, 20(15), 22-74.
Namdar Ahmadabad, H., Yousefi Tabari, S., & Hosseini, S. H. (2019). Evaluation of teaching immunology through flipped-classroom model from students' perspective in NKUMS. Educational Development of Judishapur10(3), 197-208. ‏
Nemati, M. (2019). Investigating the effect of flipped teaching-learning method on Persian language learners' reading and writing skills. Journal of Teaching Persian to Speakers of Other Languages8(18), 251-266. ‏
Novak, G. M., Patterson, E. T., Gavrin, A., & Enger, R. C. (1998). Just-in-Time Teaching: Active learner pedagogy with WWW. In IASTED International Conference on Computers and Advanced Technology in Education.
Otten, S., De Araujo, Z. & Sherman, M. (2018). Capturing variability in flipped mathematics instruction. Proceedings of the 40th Annual Meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education.
Papadopoulos, C., & Roman, A. S. (2010). Implementing an inverted classroom model in engineering statics: Initial results. In 2010 Annual Conference & Exposition.
Pinos-Vélez, V., Quinde-Herrera, K., Abril-Ulloa, V., Moscoso, B., Carrión, G., & Urgilés, J. (2020). Designing the pre-class and class to implement the flipped learning model in a research methodology course. IEEE Revista Iberoamericana de Tecnologias del Aprendizaje15(1), 43-49. ‏
Prashar, A. (2015). Assessing the flipped classroom in operations management: A pilot study. Journal of Education for Business90(3), 126-138. ‏
Ramadhani, R., & Fitri, Y. (2020). A Project-based learning into flipped classroom for ePUB3 electronic mathematics learning module (eMLM)-based on course design and implementation. Universal Journal of Educational Research8(7), 3119-3135. ‏
Rotellar, C., & Cain, J. (2016). Research, perspectives, and recommendations on implementing the flipped classroom. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education80(2), 34-34.
Safavi, A. (2014). General teaching methods and techniques. Contemporary Publications.
Sarani, H., Ayati, M., & Naderi, F. (2014). The effects of teaching English language course via phone and email on learning and achievement's motivation. Quarterly Journal of Research and Planning in Higher Education20(3), 141-159. ‏
Schallert, S., & Lavicza, Z. (2020). Implementing augmented reality in flipped mathematic classrooms to enable inquiry-based learning. In Conference on Technology in Mathematics Teaching–ICTMT 14.
Shafiee, S., & Shahbazi, M. (2018). Representation of experienced curriculum in an inverted classroom of a higher education complex. The 5th national conference on management and humanities research in Iran, Teran,
Shih, H. C. J., & Huang, S. H. C. (2018). The development of EFL learners’ metacognition in a flipped classroom. In Proceedings of the 8th Centre for Language Studies International Conference. ‏
Song, Y., & Kapur, M. (2017). How to flip the classroom-" productive failure or traditional flipped classroom" pedagogical design? Educational Technology & Society. 20(1), 292-305.
Sproz, M. A. (2016). Reverse learning in math classroom. Growth Magazine of Tomorrow School, 13(1), 11-12.
Stein, J. D., & Bransford, B, S. (1993). IDEAL problem solver: A guide for improving thinking, learning, and creativity. W. H. Freeman and Company.
Strayer, J. F. (2012). How learning in an inverted classroom influences cooperation, innovation and task orientation. Learning Environments Research15(2), 171-193. ‏
Van Alten, D. C., Phielix, C., Janssen, J., & Kester, L. (2020). Self-regulated learning support in flipped learning videos enhances learning outcomes. Computers & Education158, 104000. ‏
Wallace, A. (2014). Social learning platforms and the flipped classroom. International Journal of Information and Education Technology4(4).
Wang, F., & Hannafin, M. J. (2005). Design-based research and technology-enhanced learning environments. Educational Technology Research and Development, 53(4), 5–23.
Yadav, A., Subedi, D., Lundeberg, M. A., & Bunting, C. F. (2011). Problem‐based learning: Influence on students' learning in an electrical engineering course. Journal of Engineering Education100(2), 253-280.