Document Type : Research Paper


1 English Department, Language Faculty, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 English department, Language faculty, university of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


The idea of encouraging awareness in classrooms is not new, but research into awareness is beginning to encourage those involved in language teaching to think more systematically about how language presentation facilitate language awareness. Awareness can be promoted through focus on form activities as it triggers important cognitive processes in L2 acquisition. The effectiveness of various input- and output-based focus on form instructions on the acquisition of different grammatical structures and the role of awareness in each type is a matter for debate. The present study qualitatively investigated the effects of Processing instruction, Textual enhancement, and Text editing on L2 learners’ cognitive processes and the relationship between the learners’ level of awareness and their abilities to interpret English inversion structures. To do this, learners’ think-aloud verbalizations during instruction were recorded, transcribed, and coded. Criteria to decide which level of awareness they would fall into were slightly adapted from Leow, Hsieh, and Moreno (2008) to fit with the type of tasks employed in the study. Pretest-posttests design was also employed to measure learners’ interpretive abilities. The findings indicated that each instructional technique promoted different levels of awareness and depth of processing. The findings also provided explanations for the non-significant differences in performances between the Processing instruction and Text editing groups on an immediate posttest and outperformance of the Processing instruction group on a delayed posttest. Given the benefits that Processing instruction and Text editing brought about in the present study, both might be incorporated into a curriculum and serve as complementary tools for language teachers.


Article Title [فارسی]

عمق پردازش در شرایط متفاوت آموزشی و تفسیر ساختارهای وارونگی انگلیسی توسط زبان آموزان ایرانی

Authors [فارسی]

  • شیوا کیوان پناه 1
  • سید محمد علوی 1
  • سارا رفسنجانی نژاد 2

1 گروه زبان، دانشکده زبان های خارجه، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

2 گروه زبان، دانشکده زبانهای خارجه دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

Abstract [فارسی]

ایده فعال‌سازی آگاهی به یادگیری در کلاس‌های درس ایده جدیدی نیست اما به تازگی تحقیقات مربوط به آن، همه افراد درگیر در آموزش زبان را ترغیب می‌کند که به چگونگی ارائه زبان جهت تسهیل این امر به گونه‌ای اصولی بپردازند. این نوع آگاهی از طریق فعالیت‌های فرم-معنا محور برانگیخته می‌شود زیرا این فعایت‌ها، فرآیندهای شناختی مهم در یادگیری زبان دوم را فعال می‌سازند. تاثیر این نوع فعالیت‌های مبتنی بر درون‌داد و برون‌داد بر یادگیری انواع ساختارهای دستوری و نقش آگاهی در هر یک، موضوعی قابل بحث است. این تحقیق به صورت کیفی فرآیندهای شناختی و سطح آگاهی زبان‌آموزان را در سه نوع آموزش فرم-معنا محور با در نظر گرفتن عملکرد آنها در تفسیر ساختارهای وارونگی انگلیسی مقایسه کرده است. تکنیک‌های مورد بررسی در این تحقیق، آموزش پردازشی، برجسته‌سازی متنی و ویرایش متن بوده است. برای دستیابی به اهداف تحقیق، از زبان‌آموزان خواسته شد افکارشان را در طول آموزش به صورت شفاهی بیان کنند تا ضبط، نوشته و کدگذاری شوند. معیار قرار دادن زبان‌آموزان در هر یک از سطوح آگاهی از معیارهای ذکر شده توسط لئو، شی و مورنو (2008) انتخاب و برای متناسب شدن با فعالیت‌های تجربی مورد استفاده در این تحقیق، کمی تغییر داده شدند. عملکرد زبان‌آموزان در تفسیر این ساختارها از طریق پیش‌آزمون و دو پس‌آزمون مورد سنجش قرار گرفت. یافته‌ها نشان می‌دهد که هر یک از تکنیک‌های آموزشی، سطوح متفاوتی از آگاهی و عمق پردازش را فعال می‌سازد. بر این اساس، یافته‌ها همچنین عدم تفاوت معنادار در عملکرد دو گروه آموزش پردازشی و ویرایش متن را در پس‌آزمون فوری و عملکرد بهتر گروه آموزش پردازشی را در پس‌آزمون زمان‌دار توضیح می‌دهند. با توجه به مزایای آموزش پردازشی و ویرایش متن در تحقیق حاضر، این دو تکنیک آموزشی می‌توانند در یک برنامه درسی گنجانده شوند و به عنوان ابزارهایی مکمل به معلمان زبان کمک کنند.

Keywords [فارسی]

  • عمق پردازش
  • سطح آگاهی
  • آموزش پردازشی
  • برجسته‌سازی متنی
  • ویرایش متن

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