Validating a Qualitatively-Developed Model of Classroom Management Strategies in Iranian context

Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

1 Department of English, Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz, Iran

2 Department of English language, Islamic Azad University, shiraz Branch, Shiraz, Iran

3 epartment of English, Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz, Iran

Abstract

The present research was an attempt to posit a model of classroom management strategies for Iranian EFL learners to provide a better interpretation of qualitative findings. Hence, in line with the components of the previous model, a 33-item questionnaire was considered in the design of the classroom management questionnaire. A 42 item researcher-made questionnaire was piloted with 180 EFL learners and its reliability and the related validates were checked. As a result, EFA findings corroborated a 3- component classroom management questionnaire. Finally, the 33-item questionnaire of classroom management was distributed to 360 EFL learners. Then, the initial structure of the model was tested using CFA to come up with the final model of classroom management strategy. The results substantiated the initial structure of EFA with 3 factors and 33 items. The findings suggest EFL teachers not only pay attention to classroom practices, but also work on building up rapport and encouragement with their students. Also, the results can be presented to student teachers in teacher education programs to make them aware of the nuances of classroom management and the concerns of EFL learners in Iran. Further, these results can be at the disposal of any teacher to effectively plan, manage, develop interpersonal relationships and run their classes.

Keywords


Article Title [Persian]

اعتبارسنجی یک الگوی کیفی توسعه یافته از استراتژی های مدیریت کلاس در متن ایرانی

Authors [Persian]

  • سید فواد خطیبی 1
  • محمد صادق باقری 2
  • فیروز صدیقی 2
  • احسان رسایی 3

Keywords [Persian]

  • استراتژی مدیریت کلاس درس
  • گزارش
  • تشویق
  • تمرکز- مصاحبه گروهی
Berliner, D. C. (1986). In pursuit of the expert pedagogue. Educational Researcher, 15(7), 5-13.

Barmaki, R (2014). Nonverbal Communication and Teaching Performance. Stamper, J., Pardos, Z., Mavrikis, M., McLaren, B.M. (eds.) InProceedings of the 7th International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM). London, 441-443.

Brouwers, A., & Tomic, W. (2000). A longitudinal study of teacher burnout and perceived self- efficacy in classroom management. Teaching and Teacher Education, 16, 239-253.

Brown, H.D. (2001). Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy (2nd ed.). New York: Longman.Chen, G. (2007). Public school vs. private schools. Avialable online: www.publicschoolreview.com

Bruney, G. (2012). The teacher-student relationship: the importance of developing trust and fostering emotional intelligence in the classroom (Research Paper, UniversityofToronto, 2012). Retrieved from https://tspace.library.utoronto.ca/bitstream/1807/ 35096/1/Glenda%20 MTRP%20Complete.pdf

Burden, P.R. (2005). Classroom management: Creating a successful learning community. (2th ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Caner, H. A., & Tertemiz, N. I. (2015). Beliefs, attitudes and classroom management: A study on prospective teachers. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 186, 155-160.

Cheung, H. Y. (2008). Teacher efficacy: A comparative study of Hong Kong and Shanghai primary in-service teachers. The Australian Educational Researcher, 35(1), 103-123.

Crookes, G., & Chaudron, C. (1991). Guidelines for classroom language teaching. In M.Celce-Murcia (Ed.),Teaching English as a second or foreign language(2nd ed., pp. 46-67). New York,USA: Newbury House.

Daugherty, M.K., (2005). A changing role for technology teacher education. Journal of Industrial Technology Education, 42(1), 41-58.

Dibapile, W. T. S. (2011). A literature Review on Teacher Efficacy and Classroom Management. Journal of College Teaching & Learning, 9(2), 79-92.

Dörnyei, Z. (2007). Research methods in applied linguistics: Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methodologies (pp. 95-123). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Elbla, A. I. F. (2012). Is punishment (corporal or verbal) an effective means of discipline in schools?: Case study of two basic schools in Greater Khartoum/Sudan. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 69, 1656-1663.

Elen, J., Clarebout, G., Leonard, R., & Lowyck, J. (2007). Student-centred and teacher-centred learning environments: What students think. Teaching in higher education, 12(1), 105-117

Emmer, E. T., & Stough, L. M. (2001). Classroom management: A critical part of educational psychology, with implications for teacher education. Educational psychologist, 36(2), 103-112.

Evertson & C. S. Weinstein (Eds.),Handbook ofclassroom management: Research, practice, and contemporary issues(pp. 437–470). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Fowler, J., & Şaraplı, O. (2010). Classroom management: What ELT students expect. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 3, 94-97.

Harmer. J. (2007). The practice of English Language Teaching (4th ed). Pearson education: London

Good, T. L., & Brophy, J. E. (2003). Looking in classrooms (9e éd.). Boston, MA: Allyn et Bacon

Goker, S. D. (2006). Impact of peer coaching on self-efficacy and instructional skills in TEFL teacher education. System, 34(2), 239-254.

Kohn, A. (1996). Beyond discipline: From compliance to community.Alexandria, VA: ASCD

Khatib, S. f., Bagheri, M. S., , M. (2008). Toward the Development of a Classroom Management Strategy Model ‎for Iranian EFL Learners Using Real Observations and Participants' ‎Words. Applied Research on English Langauge7 (2), 143-170.

Hami, J., Czerniak, C., & Lumpe, A. (1996). Teacher beliefs and intentions regarding the implementation of science education reform strands. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 33, 971-993

Henson, R. K. (2003). Personality type as a predictor of teaching efficacy and classroom control in emergency certification teachers. Education, 124(2), 261-269.

Hoy, W. K., & Woolfolk, A. E. (1993). Teachers’ sense of efficacy and the organizational health of schools [electronic version]. The Elementary SchoolJournal, 93, 355-372.

Khodarahmi, E., & Motallebi Nia, A. (2014) EFL Teachers` Classroom Discipline Strategies and Learners’ Willingness to Communicate in English Inside the Classroom. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 98, 976-981.

Liaw, E. C. (2009). Teacher efficacy of pre-service teachers in Taiwan: The influence of classroom teaching and group discussions. Teaching and Teacher Education, 25(1), 176-180.

LePage, P., Darling-Hammond, L., Akar, H., Gutierrez, C., Jenkins-Gunn,E., & Rosebrock, K. (2005). Classroom management. In L. Darling-Hammond & J. Bransford (Eds.),Preparing teachers for a changingworld(pp. 327–357). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

McLeod, J., Fisher, J., & Hoover, G. (2003). The key elements of classroom management: Managing time and space, student behavior, and instructional strategies. ASCD.

Martin, N. (1995). Beliefs regarding classroom management style: Relationships to particular teacher pesonality characteristics. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Southwest Educational Research Association, San Antonio, TX.

Marzano, R. J., Marzano, J. S., & Pickering, D. (2003). Classroom management that works: Research-based strategies for every teacher. ASCD.

Moafian, F., & Ghanizadeh, A. (2009). The relationship between Iranian EFL teachers’ emotional intelligence and their self-efficacy in Language Institutes. System, 37(4), 708-718.

Oliver, R. M.; Wehby, J. H.; & Reschly, D. J. (2011). Teacher classroom management practices: effects on disruptive or aggressive student behavior. Campbell Systematic Reviews

Pallant, J. (2011). SPSS survival manual. Australia. Allen&Unwin 2007, 242-266.

Rahimi, M., & Asadollahi, F. (2012). On therelationship between Iranian EFLteachers classroom management orientations and teaching style. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 31, 49-55.

Rahimi, M., & Hosseini, F. (2012). EFL teachers' classroom discipline strategies: the students' perspective. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 31, 309 – 314.

Richards, J. C., & Rodgers, T. (2003). Approaches and methods in language teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ross, J. A., Hogaboam-Gray, A., & Hannay, L. (2001, April). Effects of teacher efficacy on computer skills and computer cognitions of Canadian students in K-3 [electronic version]. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the AmericanEducational Research Association, Seattle.

Samimi, F., & Sahragard, R. (2018). On the validation of a preliminary model of reading strategy using SEM: evidence from Iranian ELT postgraduate sudents. Research in Applied Linguistics, 9(1), 105-126.

Samimi, F., Sahragard, R., & Razmjoo, S. A. (2016). On the development of a model of discipline-specific reading strategies in the context of iranian EFL learners. International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching and Research, 4(15), 99-115.

Sridhar, Y. N., & Javan, S. (2011). Teacher efficacy and its relationship to classroom management style among secondary school teachers of Kigali city. Rwanda. Journal of Education and Practice, 2(2), 55-60.

Tartwijk, J. (2011). Classroom management in a Dutch teacher education program: A realistic approach. Teaching Education, 22(2), 169-184.

Tschannen-Moran, M. & Woolfolk Hoy, A. (2001). Teacher efficacy: Capturing an elusive construct. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17, 783-805

Yazdanmehr, E., & Akbari, R. (2015). An expert EFL teacher’s class management. Iranian Journal of Language Teaching Research, 3 (2), 1-13.

Yuan, K.-H., & Bentler, P. M. (2000). 5. Three likelihood-based methods for mean and covariance structure analysis with nonnormal missing data. Sociological methodology, 30(1), 165-200.

Wolfgang, C. H. (2005). Solving discipline problems: Strategies for classroom teachers (5th Ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

. Wolfgang, C.H., & Glickman, C.D. (1985). Solving discipline problems:Strategies for classroom teachers (2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn andBacon.

Wolff, C. E., van den Bogert, N., Jarodzka, H., & Boshuizen, H. P. (2015). Keeping an eye on learning: Differences between expert and novice teachers’ representations of classroom management events. Journal of Teacher Education, 66(1), 68-85.

Xu, J., & Wu, H. (2013). Self-regulation of homework behavior: homework management at the secondary school level. The Journal of Educational Research, 106(1), 1-13