Investigating the Effects of Individual Differences in the Speech Act of Apology in Institutional Discourse

Author

Assistant Professor, Department of English, Islamic Azad University, Maybod Branch, Yazd, Iran

Abstract

This study investigated the effect of individual differences (IDs) like language proficiency, gender and age on careful, unpressured online planning on the production of speech act of apology in institutional discourse. For this purpose, one hundred and eighty-seven Persian EFL university students at three academic levels (undergraduates, postgraduates and PhD students) participated and cross-sectional data were collected to compare and analyze the apologies produced by learners at different proficiency levels. A three way between subject analyses (ANOVA) showed quantitative differences among the three groups according to individual differences. Further, in-depth qualitative analyses of test items and retrospective verbal reports (RVRs) taken from the participants revealed developmental information about the series of processes, language states and patterns followed by learners when making an apology in a second language. Sociocultural, socio-psychological and socio-affective aspects of the discourse situations influenced not only students’ pragmalinguistic and sociolinguistic choices but also their negotiation of lexical and grammatical choices in planning the speech act of apology. Apparently, the degree of sociocultural accommodation to the L2 pragmatic norms may be a matter of choice as of ability. One major pedagogical implication of this study is that any account of the development of interlanguage pragmatics (ILP) should take into consideration the interaction of ID variables that are likely to intervene between the stages of noticing and target like production.
 
 

Keywords


Article Title [Persian]

بررسی تأثیر تفاوتهای فردی بر کاربرد کنشهای گفتاری عذر خواهی در درگفتمان دانشگاهی

Author [Persian]

  • اشرف حاجی میبدی
استادیار، گروه زبان انگلیسی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد میبد، یزد
Abstract [Persian]

این مطالعه به بررسی اثر تفاوت های فردی (IDS) مانند مهارت زبانی، جنس و سن در برنامه ریزی دقیق و بسیط همزمان تولید کنشهای گفتاری معذرت خواهی در گفتمان نهادی پرداخته است. بدین منظور، 187 فراگیران زبان انگلیسی ایرانی    در سه سطح دانشگاهی (مقطع کارشناسی، فوق لیسانس و دکترا) در این پژوهش شرکت کردند. داده های مقطعی برای مقایسه و تجزیه و تحلیل عبارات عذر خواهی تولید شده توسط زبان آموزان در سطوح مختلف مهارتی جمع آوری شد. یک آنالیز سه وجهی  بین گروهی (ANOVA) تفاوت های کمی بین سه گروه را با توجه به تفاوت های فردی آنها مشخص کرد. علاوه بر این، تجزیه و تحلیل کیفی و عمقی موارد مورد آزمون و گزارشات کلامی گذشته نگر (RVRs) ارایه  شده توسط شرکت کنندگان، اطلاعات تکمیلی در مورد مجموعه ی فرآیندها، وضعیت زبانی و الگوهای مورد استفاده ی دنبال آموزان در هنگام ساخت یک عبارت عذرخواهی در زبان دوم را نشان داد. جنبه های فرهنگی اجتماعی، اجتماعی روانی و اجتماعی عاطفی شرایط گفتمان نه تنها بر انتخاب جوانب کاربردی و اجتماعی زبان دانشجویان تاثیرگذار است بلکه بر گزینشهای واژگانی و دستوری آنها در طرح ریزی کنش گفتاری معذرت خواهی نیز موثر است.  ظاهرا، میزان استقرار هنجارهای کاربردی زبان دوم بیشتر به انتخاب تا به توانایی زبان آموز است. یکی از مفاهیم عمده آموزشی این مطالعه این است که در تولید هر نوع از ساختارهای کاربردی میانزبانی (ILP) باید تعامل متغیرهای تفاوتهای فردی که به احتمال زیاد در بین مراحل توجه و تولید ساختار مورد نظردخیل است، را در نظر گرفت.

Keywords [Persian]

  • عذر خواهی
  • کاربرد میانزبانی
  • گفتمان نهادی
  • برنامه ریزی همزمان
  • تفاوتهای فردی
Afghari, A. (2007). A sociopragmatic study of apology speech act realization patterns in Persian. Speech Communication, 49 (3), 177-185. 

Bardovi-Harlig, K. (2003). Understanding the role of grammar in the acquisition of L2 pragmatics. In A. Martı´nez Flor, E. Uso´ Juan, & A. Ferna´ndez Guerra (Eds.), Pragmatic competence and foreign language teaching (pp. 25–44). Castello´ de la Plana: Publicacions de la Universitat Jaume I.

Bardovi-Harlig, K., & Dornyei, Z. (1998). Do language learners recognize pragmatic violations? Pragmatic versus grammatical awareness in instructed L2 learning. TESOL Quarterly, 32(2), 233-262.

Bardovi-Harlig, K., & Hartford, B.S. (1993). Learning the rules of academic talk. A longitudinal study of pragmatic change. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 15, 279-304.

Bardovi-Harlig, K., & Hartford B. S. (1996). Input in institutional setting. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 18, 171-188.

Bardovi-Harlig, K., & Hartford, B. S. (2005). Institutional discourse and interlanguage pragmatics. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.

Barron, A. (2003). Acquisition in interlanguage pragmatics: Learning how to do things with words in a study abroad context. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Bayat, N. (2013). A study on the use of speech acts. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 70, 213 – 221.

Beeman, W. O. (2001). Emotion and sincerity in Persian discourse: Accomplishing the representation of inner states. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 148, 31-57.

 Bergman, M. L., & Kasper, G. (1993). Perception and performance in native and nonnative apology. In G. Kasper, & S. Blum-Kulka (Eds.), Interlanguage pragmatics (pp. 82-107). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Billmyer, K., & Varghese, M. (2000). Investigating instrument-based pragmatical variability: Effects of enhancing discourse completion tasks. Applied Linguistics, 21(4), 517-552.

 Blum-Kulka, S., House, J., & Kasper, G. (Eds.). (1989). Cross-cultural pragmatics: Requests and apologies. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Boxer, D. (2002). Discourse issues in cross-cultural pragmatics. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 22150-167.

Cohen, A. D. (1996). Developing the ability to perform speech acts. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 18, 253-267.

Cohen, A. D. (2010). Strategies for learning and performing speech acts. In N. Ishihara and A. D. Cohen (Eds.). Teaching and learning pragmatics: Where language and culture meet (pp. 227-243). Harlow, Essex, England: Longman / Pearson Education.

Cohen, A. D., & Olshtain, E. (1993). The production of speech acts by EFL learners. TESOL Quarterly, 27(1), 33-56.

 Crandall, E., & Basturkmen, H. (2004). Evaluating pragmatics-focused materials. ELT Journal, 58 (1), 38-49.

Dadkhah Tehrani, M., Rezaei, O., Dezhara, S., & Kafrani, R.S. (2012). Apology strategies of Iranian undergraduate students. English language Teaching, 5(2), Retrieved from: www.ccsenet.org/elt.

Ellis, R. (2005). Planning and task-based performance: Theory and research. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Ellis, R. (2008). The Study of second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ellis, R., & Yuan, F. (2004). The effects of planning on fluency, complexity and accuracy in second language narrative writing. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 26(1), 59–84.  

Eslami-Rasekh, Z. (2004). Face-keeping strategies in reaction to complaints: English and Persian. Journal of Asian Pacific Communication, 14,181-197.

Haji Maibodi, A. (2016).Assessing the impact of individual differences on the interlanguage pragmatics of the Iranian EFL learner in institutional discourse. Unpublished PhD dissertation. Tehran, Iran: Science and Research Branch.

Haji Maibodi, A., & Fazilatfar, A. M. (2015). Theimpact of individual differences on the interlanguage pragmatics of Iranian EFL learners in institutional discourse. Issues in Language Teaching (ILT), 4(1), 99-129.

Haji Maibodi, A., Fazilatfar, A.M., & Allami, H. (2016). Exploring subjectivity in verbal reports of Iranian EFL learners in institutional discourse. International Journal of Applied Linguistics & English Literature, 5(5), 252-263.

Holmes, J. (1995). Women, men and politeness.  New York and London: Taylor & Francis.

Izadi, A. (2015). Persian honorifics and im/politeness as social practice. Journal of Pragmatics, 85, 81-91.  

Kasper, G. (1998). Interlanguage pragmatics. In H. Byrnes (Ed.), Learning foreign and second Languages: Perspectives in research and scholarship (pp.183-208). New York: The Modern Language Association of America.

Kasper, G., & Rose, K. (2002). The role of instruction in learning second language pragmatics. Language Learning, 52, 237–73.

Kasper, G., & Schmidt, R. (1996). Developmental issues in interlanguage pragmatics. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 18, 149-169.  

Karimnia, A., & Afghari, A. (2012). On apologizing in Persian: A socio-cultural inquiry. Retrieved from: hrcak.srce.hr/file/140129.

Kecskes, I. (2007). Formulaic language in English lingua franca. In I. Kecskes & L. Horn (Eds.), Explorations in pragmatics: Linguistic, cognitive and intercultural aspects (pp. 191– 219). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Kecskes, I. (2015). How does pragmatic competence develop in bilinguals? International Journal of Multilingualism, 1-16.   

Kim, D, K. (2001). A Descriptive Analysis of Korean and English Apologies with Implications for Interlanguage Pragmatics. PhD Dissertation, University of Florida.

Kuriscak, L. (2010). The effect of individual-level variables on speech act performance. In A. Martínez-Flor & E. Usó-Juan (Eds.), Speech act performance: Theoretical, empirical and methodological issues, (pp. 23-39). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Larsen-Freeman, D. (2006). The Emergence of complexity, fluency, and accuracy in the oral and written production of five Chinese learners of English. Applied Linguistics, 27(4), 590–619.

Maeshiba, N., Yoshinaga, N., Kasper, G., & Ross, S. (1996). Transfer and proficiency in interlanguage apologizing. In S. Gass, & J. Neu (Eds.), Speech acts across cultures (pp.155–187). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter

McNamara, T. (1997). What do we mean by social identity? Competing frameworks, competing discourses. TESOL Quarterly, 31, 561–7.

Pienemann, M. (1998). Language processing and second language development. Amsterdam/ Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Sabaté i Dalmau, M., & Curell i Gotor, H. (2007).From “sorry very much” to “I’m ever so sorry”: Acquisitional patterns in L2 apologies by Catalan learners of English. Intercultural Pragmatics, 4(2), 287-315.

Schmidt, R. (1993). Awareness and second language acquisition. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 13, 206-226.

Shariati, M., & Chamani, F. (2010). Apology strategies in Persian. Journal of Pragmatics, 42, 1689–1699.

 Sharifian, F. (2013). Cultural conceptualizations in learning English as an L2: Examples from Persian-speaking learners. Iranian Journal of Language Teaching Research, 1 (1), 90-116.

Taguchi, N. (2006). Analysis of appropriateness in a speech act of request in L2 English. Pragmatics, 16, 513-535.

Taguchi, N. (2011). Do proficiency and study-abroad experience affect speech act production? Analysis of appropriateness, accuracy, and fluency. International Review of Applied Linguistics, 49, 265-293.

Takahashi, S. (2005). Noticing in task performance and learning outcomes: A qualitative analysis of instructional effects in interlanguage pragmatics. System, 33, 437-461.  

Trosborg, A. (1995). Interlanguage pragmatics: Requests, complaints and apologies. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

Wierzbicka, A. (1985). Different cultures, different languages, different speech acts. Journal of Pragmatics, 9, 145–178.  

Woodfield, H. & Economidou-Kogetsidis, M. (2010). ‘I just need more time’: A study of native and non-native requests to faculty for an extension. Multilingua, 29 (1), 77-118.