1 Ph.D. Candidate of TEFL, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

2 Associate Professor of TEFL, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran


This study aimed to investigate the relationship between language teachers' perception of instructional supervision and their self-efficacy. In addition, it intended to delve into the interplay among self-efficacy, perception of supervision, and teaching performance of Iranian EFL teachers. Employing a mixed-method design, the researchers collected the data, using questionnaires and observation. A total number of 116 EFL instructors teaching at language institutes in Shiraz participated in the quantitative phase of the study. Making use of purposive sampling, the researchers asked 46 of the participants to cooperate in the second phase of the study in which data was collected through classroom observations. In order to analyze the collected data, the researchers utilized descriptive statistics, Cronbach's alpha, Pearson correlation, multiple regression analysis, and code-recode agreement techniques. The findings of the study revealed a significant positive relationship between teachers' self-efficacy and their perception of instructional supervision (r = 0.22, p<0.05). Moreover, the participants' teaching performance was significantly correlated with their self-efficacy (r = 0.64, p<0.05) and their perception of supervision (r=0.10, p<0.05). In addition, further investigation of the data revealed that teachers' self-efficacy was the only variable that made a significant unique contribution to their teaching performance (Beta = 0.43, p<0.05).


Article Title [Persian]

 تعامل میان خودکارآمدی، دیدگاه مدرسان نسبت به امر نظارت آموزشی، و عملکرد تدریس در بین مدرسان ایرانی زبان انگلیسی

Authors [Persian]

  • افسانه بهارلو 1
  • سعید مهرپور 2

1 دانشجوی دکتری آموزش زبان انگلیسی، دانشگاه شیراز

2 استادیار آموزش زبان انگلیسی، دانشگاه شیراز

Abstract [Persian]

هدف از تحقیق حاضر، بررسی رابطه ی بین دیدگاه مدرسان زبان نسبت به امر نظارت آموزشی و خودکارآمدیشان بود. به علاوه، این پژوهش به بررسی تعامل میان خودکارآمدی مدرسان ایرانی زبان انگلیسی، دیدگاه آن ها نسبت به امر نظارت، و عملکرد تدریسشان نیز پرداخت. محققان حاضر با بهره گیری از روش پژوهشی ترکیبی، داده های مورد نیاز را با استفاده از پرسشنامه و مشاهده جمع آوری کردند. در مجموع، 116 مدرس زبان انگلیسی که به تدریس در موسسات زبان شیراز اشتغال داشتند در بخش کمَی این تحقیق شرکت نمودند. در ضمن، پژوهشگران این مطالعه، با بهره گیری از روش نمونه برداری هدفمند از 46 نفر از شرکت کنندگان درخواست کردند که در بخش کیفی تحقیق نیز همکاری داشته باشند. در این مرحله، داده های مورد نیاز از طریق مشاهدات کلاسی جمع آوری شدند. به منظور تحلیل داده های جمع آوری شده، پژوهشگران فوق از آمار توصیفی، آلفای کرونباخ، همبستگی پیرسون، تحلیل رگراسیون چندگانه، و روش های کدگذاری استفاده کردند. نتایج بدست آمده، حاکی از وجود رابطه هایی مثبت و معنادار میان خودکارآمدی مدرسان و دیدگاهشان نسبت به امر نظارت آموزشی بود ((r=0.22,p<0.05. در ضمن، عملکرد تدریس شرکت کنندگان این تحقیق رابطه هایی مثبت و معنادار با خودکارآمدیشان((r=0.64,p<0.05، و همچنین با دیدگاه آن ها نسبت به امر نظارت آموزشی داشت ((r=0.10,p<0.05. به علاوه، بررسی های بیشتر داده ها، نشان داد که خودکارآمدی مدرسان تنها متغیری بود که به طرز معناداری در پیش بینی عملکرد تدریس آن ها نقش داشت ((Beta=0.43,p<0.05..

Keywords [Persian]

  • مدرسان زبان انگلیسی
  • خودکارآمدی
  • نظارت
  • عملکرد تدریس

Ary, D., Jacobs, L. C., & Sorensen, C. (2010). Introduction to research in education (8th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Baily, K. M. (2006). Language teacher supervision: A case-based approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York, WH: Freeman & Company.

Blumberg, A. (1980). Supervisors and teachers: A private cold war (2nd ed.). Berkeley: McCutchan Publishing.

Beh-Afarin, S. R., & Dehghan Banadaki, A. A. (2013). The effect of clinical supervision on teachers’ sense of efficacy. In Proceedings of The 11th TELLSI International Conference (pp 92-105). Mashhad, Iran: Tabaran Institute of Higher Education.

Buregeya, N. (2011). Influence of head teachers' general and instructional supervisory practices on teachers' work performance in secondary schools in Entebbe municipality, Wakiso District, Uganda (Master's thesis). Bugema University, Uganda. Retrieved from

Cagle, K., & Hopkins, P. (2009). Teacher self-efficacy and the supervision of marginal teachers. Journal of Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives in Education, 2(1), 25-31.

Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., Steca, P., & Malone, P. S. (2006). Teachers' self-efficacy beliefs as determinants of job satisfaction and students' academic achievement: A study at the school level. Journal of School Psychology, 44(6), 473-490.

Cheung, H. (2006). The Measurement of teacher efficacy: Hong Kong primary in-service teachers. Journal of Education for Teaching, 32(4), 435-451.

Chester, M. D., & Beaudin, B. Q. (1996). Efficacy beliefs of newly hired teachers in urban schools. American Educational Research Journal, 33(1), 233-257.

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Coladarci, T., & Breton, W. A. (1997). Teacher efficacy, supervision, and the special education resource room teacher. The Journal of Educational Research, 90(4), 230-239.

Dipaola, M. F., & Hoy, W. K. (2008). Principals improving instruction: Supervision, evaluation, and professional development. Boston: Pearson.

Elliott, E. M., Isaac, M. L., & Chugani, C. D. (2010). Promoting self-efficacy in early career teachers: A principal’s guide for differentiated mentoring and supervision. Florida Journal of Educational Administration & Policy, 4(1), 131-146.

Ereno, J. R., & Nunez, K. T. (2014). What makes a teacher a better teacher? A hierarchical regression analysis of self-efficacy and commitment as predictors of faculty members' job performance. International Journal of Asian Social Science, 4(4), 492-498.

Eslami, Z. R., & Fatahi, A. (2008). Teachers’ sense of self-efficacy, English proficiency, and instructional strategies: A study of nonnative EFL teachers in Iran. TESL-EJ, 11(4), 1-19.

Gerumi, S. (2003). Instructional Supervision: Its impact on Teachers’ and Students’ Performance (Unpublished master's thesis). Nueva Caceres University, Naga.

Hismanoglu, M., & Hismanoglu, S. (2010). English language teachers’ perceptions of educational supervision in relation to their professional development: A case study of Northern Cyprus. Novitas-ROYAL (Research on Youth and Language), 4(1), 16-34.

Iroegbu, M. N. (2015). Self-efficacy and work performance: A theoretical framework of Albert Bandura's model, review of findings, implications and directions for future research. Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, 4(4), 170-173.

Judge, T. A., Jackson, C. L., Shaw, J. C., Scott, B. A., & Rich, B. L. (2007). Self-efficacy and work-related performance: The integral role of individual differences. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(1), 107-127.

Kayaoğlu, M. N. (2007). The unbearable heaviness of being supervised for EFL teachers. TTED Newsletter: Teacher Trainers and Educators, 1, 15-20.

Kirmizi, O. (2015). The interplay among academic self-concept, self-efficacy, self-regulation and academic achievement of higher education L2 learners. Journal of Higher Education and Science, 5(1), 32-40.

Kramer, C., Blake, P., & Alba, F. (2005). A Comparison of teacher attitudes toward supervision of instruction in selected high and low performance secondary schools of Puerto Rico (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Dowling College Brookhaven, New York.

Lastrapes, W., & Negishi, M. (2011). A window into pre-service teachers’ cultural consciousness and self-efficacy for teaching diverse learners. SRATE Journal, 21(1), 37-43.

Mosher, R. L., & Purpel, D. E. (1972). Supervision: The reluctant profession. New York: Houghton Mifflin.

Nampa, C. (2007). Supervision and teachers' performance in Catholic secondary schools in Luwero District, Uganda (Unpublished master's thesis). Makerere University, Uganda.

Nunan, D. (1999a). So you think that language teaching is a profession? (Part 1). TESOL Matters, 9(3), 3.

Nunan, D. (1999b). So you think that language teaching is a profession? (Part 2). TESOL Matters, 9(4), 3.

Qureshi, R. (2015). They are able who think they are able: Relationship between self-efficacy and in-service teacher education. International Journal on New Trends in Education and their Implications, 6(2), 93-103.

Rahmany, R., Hasani, M. T., & Parhoodeh, K. (2014). EFL teachers' attitudes towards being supervised in an EFL context. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 5(2), 348-359.

Spearing, L. (2013). A Study of the relationship of perceived principal supervision and support to the perceived self-efficacy of beginning and experienced K-12 teachers (Doctoral dissertation). Drexel University, Philadelphia, U.S. Retrieved from

Stajkovic, A. D., & Fred, L. (1998). Self-efficacy and work-related performance: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 124(2),240-261.

Tesfaw, T. A., & Hofman, R. H. (2014). Relationship between instructional supervision and professional development. The International Education Journal: Comparative Perspectives, 13(1),82-99.

Tschennan-Moran, M., & Woolfolk-Hoy, A. (2001). Teacher efficacy: Capturing an elusive construct. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17(7), 783-805.

Tshabalala, T. (2013). Teachers’ perceptions towards classroom instructional supervision: A case Study of Nkayi district in Zimbabwe. International Journal of Social Sciences and Education, 4(1), 25-32.

Zellars, A., Donald, O., & Taft, G. (2002). Issues in performance and worth of employee’s self. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, 765-774.