Analyzing Cognitive Processes and Multiple Intelligences in the Top-Notch Textbooks


Assistant Professor of TEFL, Shahrekord University, Iran


Reading comprehension and critical thinking are basic skills for second/foreign language learners that should be developed during higher education. A critical thinking-based instruction can engage the cognitive processes which may improve language learners’ reading comprehension and critical thinking. This study then seeks to compare the effectiveness of a critical thinking-based instruction with a traditional (noncritical thinking-based) one in improving Iranian L2 learners’ reading comprehension along with their critical thinking. To this end, 50 intermediate Iranian EFL learners majoring in English translation were selected (through accessibility sampling) and assigned to the experimental and control groups. TOEFL reading comprehension and Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal tests were employed to assess their reading comprehension and critical thinking skills using a pretest-posttest control group design. The results of t-tests and analysis of covariance revealed that the treatment in the experimental group (i.e., using questioning, discussion in groups, note-making, annotations, and reflective practice) had a positive and significant effect on increasing both reading comprehension and critical thinking of the EFL participants. Besides, the participants in the experimental (critical thinking-based) group outperformed those in the control (noncritical thinking-based) group in their reading comprehension and critical thinking skills. Findings have theoretical and pedagogical implications for L2 researchers and teachers about the reading construct and the way to teach it.


Article Title [Persian]

بررسی تاثیر آموزش تفکر انتقادی- محور در مقایسه با آموزش غیر انتقادی - محور بر خواندن و درک مطلب زبان خارجی و تفکر انتقادی

Author [Persian]

  • علی روحانی
استادیار دانشگاه شهرکرد
Abstract [Persian]

خواندن و درک مطلب زبان و تفکر انتقادی از مهارت‌های اساسی برای فراگیران زبان خارجی می‌باشد که باید در آموزش عالی مورد توجه قرار گیرند. آموزش تفکر انتقادی- محور می‌تواند فرایند های شناختی را به کار گیرد که ممکن است در بهبود خواندن و درک مطلب زبان و و تفکر انتقادی نقش داشته باشد. بنابراین، هدف این تحقیق مقایسه کارایی آموزش تفکر انتقادی- محور در مقایسه با آموزش متداول سنتی (یعنی غیر انتقادی - محور ) برای بهبود خواندن و درک مطلب و تفکر انتقادی فراگیران زبان دوم در ایران می‌باشد. بدین منظور، 50 زبان آموز انگلیسی ایرانی قابل دسترس، انتخاب و به دو گروه تجربی و شاهد تقسیم گردیدند. سپس، آزمون خواندن تافل و پرسشنامه‌ی ارزیابی تفکر انتقادی واتسون و گلیسر برای ارزیابی مهارت خواندن و درک مطلب زبان و تفکر انتقادی آن-ها به روش پیش‌آزمون- پس‌آزمون استفاده گردید. نتایج آزمون تی و تجزیه و تحلیل کوواریانس نشان داد که تیمار در گروه تجربی (شامل پرسش و پاسخ، بحث در گروه، یاداشت‌برداری، حاشیه‌نویسی و تمرین اندیشمندانه) تاثیر مثبت و معناداری به روی درک مطلب و تفکر انتقادی شرکت‌کنندگان زبان‌آموز داشته است. علاوه‌بر‌این، شرکت‌کنندگان در گروه تجربی (تفکر انتقادی- محور) نسبت به شرکت‌کنندگان در گروه شاهد (غیر تفکر انتقادی- محور) عملکرد بهتری در زمینه خواندن و درک مطلب زبان و تفکر انتقادی داشتند. نتایج این تحقیق، دستآوردهای به لحاظ نظری و آموزشی برای محققان و معلمان زبان دوم درباره سازه مهارت خواندن و روش تدریس آن دارد.

Keywords [Persian]

  • خواندن و درک مطلب
  • تفکر انتقادی
  • یادگیری زبان دوم
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