The effect of Computer-Mediated Collaborative Learning on Iranian Advanced Female EFL Learners' Critical Thinking and Writing Performance


1 Islamic Azad University Kish International Branch

2 Imam Khomeini International University


In this study, the researcher attempted to investigate the effect of computer-mediated collaborative learning on Iranian advanced female English Learners' critical thinking and writing performance. In order to do this, initially 90 participants were chosen. To assure the homogeneity regarding language proficiency, they participated in a TOEFL exam which was used to select 60 out of 90 students whose scores fell between +1 and -1 SD for this study. Participants were then randomly assigned to two 30-member control and experimental groups. In this study, Watson–Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal-Form A (Watson & Glaser, 1980) was used as a pretest to see to what extent the participants think critically. A writing test was also administered to assess the writing performance of the learners as writing pre-test. This writing was adapted from TOEFL Writing section and the results were scored by 3 raters. Then, two groups participated in ten sessions. The experimental group was provided with 15 laptops as well as with internet access so as to be able to extract the necessary information for completing their writing. Finally, the critical thinking questionnaire was administered again. Also, a post-test writing was administered to investigate the effect of treatment on the writing performance. The results of data analysis indicated that computer-mediated collaboration led to better writing performance of the learners. Computer-mediated collaboration also proved to have a statistically significant effect on critical thinking level of the participants.


Article Title [Persian]

تاثیر یادگیریی با واسطه کامپیوتر در کارگروهی برروی تفکر انتقادی وعملکرد مهارت نوشتاری زبان آموزان دختر ایرانی سطح پیشرفته

Authors [Persian]

  • زهرا فقیری 1
  • مهدی بازیار 2
1 دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد کیش
2 استادیار دانشگاه بین المللی امام خمینی (ره) قزوین
Abstract [Persian]

در این مقاله محقق به بررسی تاثیر یادگیری باواسطه کامپیوتر برروی تفکرانتقادی ومهارت نوشتاری دانش آموزان پیشرفته
دختر ایرانی پرداخته است. این مقاله دو هدف اصلی رادنبال می­کند. هدف اول چگونگی بهبود عملکرد نوشتاری زبان­آموزان بااستفاده از یادگیری با واسطه کامپیوتر به­صورت مشارکتی می باشد و هدف دوم پی بردن به چگونگی تغییر تفکرانتقادی از طریق این فرآیند می باشد. در نیل به این اهداف، ابتدا 90 شرکت کننده انتخاب شدند. برای همگن بودن مشارکت کنندگان، ابتدا تست  TOEFLاز آنان به عمل آمد و 60 نفر از90 به صورت تصادفی انتخاب شدند و به دو گروه 30 نفره کنترل و تجربی تقسیم شدند. دراین تحقیق، فرم ارزیابی واتسون وگلیزر به عنوان پش­آزمون برای سنجش درجه تفکرانتقادی آنان و از یک تست نوشتاری تافل به منظور ارزیابی عملکرد نوشتاری آنان انتخاب شد. نتایج توسط سه مصحح محاسبه شد. سپس دو گروه در 10 جلسه شرکت کردند. برای گروه تجربی، 15 لپ تاپ فراهم شد و اینترنت در دسترس آنان قرار گرفت تا بتوانند اطلاعات لازم را استخراج کنند. در انتها، پرسشنامه تفکرانتقادی دوباره به مشارکت کنندگان داده شد. سپس یک پس­آزمون نوشتاری برای بررسی یادگیریی با واسطه کامپیوتر بر مهارت نوشتاری آنان به مشارکت کنندگان داده شد. نتایج تحلیل داده ها با استفاده از آزمون  t-tes نشان داد که همکاری مشارکتی با واسطه کامپیوتر منتج به عملکرد بهتر نوشتاری زبان آموزان می­شود و ثابت شد که یادگیریی با واسطه کامپیوتر همچنین تاثیر معناداری بر افزایش سطح تفکرانتقادی شرکت کنندگان دارد.

Keywords [Persian]

  • یادگیری زبان با واسطه کامپیوتر
  • تفکرانتقادی
  • نمایش کاری نوشتاری
  • یادگیری مشارکتی
Abu Mansor, M., & Ismail, A. (2012). Learning styles and perception of engineering students towards online learning. Procedia: Social and Behavioral Sciences, 69, 669-674.

Agélii Genlott, A., & Grönlund,  A. (2013). Improving literacy skills through learning reading by writing: The iWTR method presented and tested. Computers & Education, 67, 98-104.

Arreerard, W., & Sanrach, C. (2006).The development of the collaborative intelligent computer-assisted instruction model using computer network. New York: CICAI Model Publications.

Astleitner, H. (2002). Teaching critical thinking online. Retrieved 24, January, 2014 from:

Bailin, S. (2002). Critical thinking and science education. Science & Education, 11(4), 361-375.

Beatty, K. (2010). Teaching and researching: Computer-assisted language learning. Harlow: Pearson Education.

Beatty, K., & Nunan, D. (2004). Computer-mediated collaborative learning, System, 32, 165-183.

Benson, P. (2001). Teaching and researching autonomy in language learning. London: Longman.

Brown, H. D. (2000). Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy (2nd ed.). White Plains, NY: Longman.

Brown, J. D. (2001). Using surveys in language programs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Chang, K. Y. R, & Smith, F. (1991). Cooperative learning and CALL/IVD in beginning Spanish: An experiment. The Modern Language Journal, 75(2), 205-211.

Chastain, K. (1988). Developing second language skills: Theory and practice. Orlando: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Publishers.

Crook, C. (1994). Computers and the collaborative experience of learning. London: Routledge.

Dudley-Evans, T., & St John, M. J. (1998). Developments in English for specific purposes: A multi-disciplinary approach. Cambridge: CUP.

Frampton, D. (1994). Analyzing cognitions in a hypermedia learning environment. Australian Journal of Educational Technology, 10(2), 81-95.

Garrett, G. (1998). Partisan politics in the global economy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 

Giancarlo, C. A., & Facione, P. A. (2001). A look across four years at the disposition towards critical thinking among undergraduate students. The Journal of General Education, 50(1), 29-55.

Grabowski, J. (1996). Writing and speaking: Common grounds and differences toward a regulation theory of written language production. In C. M. Levy, & S. Ransdell (Eds.), The Science of writing (pp. 75-86).Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Association.

Halonen, J. S. (1995). Demystifying critical thinking. Teaching of Psychology, 22, 75-81.

Jaitip, N. (1999). Web-based instruction. Chulalongkorn: Faculty of Education Chulalongkorn University Publications.

Koschmann, T. (1996). Paradigm shifts and instructional technology: An introduction. In T. Koschmann (Ed.), CSCL: Theory and practice of an emerging paradigm (pp. 1-23). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Association.

Kramsch, C., A'Ness, F., & Lam, W. S. E. (2000). Authenticity and authorship in the computer-mediated acquisition of L2 literacy. Language learning and Technology, 4, 78-104.

Levy, M. (1997). CALL conceptualization, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Lipman, M. (1991). Thinking in education. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Minnich, E. (1990). Transforming knowledge. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Murphy, M., Kruger, A., & Grieszl, A. (1998). RECALL providing and individualized CALL environment. In S. J. Nerbonne, & V. Essen (Eds.), Language teaching and language technology (pp. 231-149). Lisse: Swets Zeitlinger Publishers.

Murray, D. M. (1980). Writing as a process: How writing finds its own meaning. In T. R. Donovan, & B. W. McClelland (Eds.), Eight approaches to teaching composition (pp. 300-312).Urbana-Champaign: National Council of Teachers of English.

Norris, S. P., & Ennis, R. (1989). Evaluating critical thinking. Pacific Grove, California: Critical Thinking Press and Software.

Okonkwo, U. (2011). Computer assisted language learning (CALL) software: Evaluation of its influence in a language learning process. African Journals Online, 12, 76-89.

Rezaei, S., Derakhshan, A., & Bagherkazemi, M. (2011). Critical thinking in language education. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 2(4), 769-777.

Seung-Ryul, S. (2002). The effects of a metacognitive art criticism teaching strategy that Incorporates computer technology on critical thinking skill and art critiquing ability. Dissertation Abstract International. (UMI Number: 3072012).

Seow, A. (2002). The writing process and process writing. In J. C. Richards, & W. A. Renandya (Eds.), Methodology in language teaching: An anthology of current practice (pp. 315-320). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Shaharom A. (2004). Reading comprehension test as a measurement of critical thinking ability. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Malaysia.

Siegel, H. (1988). Educating reason: Rationality, critical thinking and education. New York: Routledge & Metheun.

Simuth, J., & Sarmany-Schuller, I. (2014). Cognitive style variable in E-learning.Procedia:  Social and Behavioral Sciences, 116, 1464-1467.

Stapleton, P. (2001). Assessing critical thinking in the writing of Japanese university students: Insights about assumptions and content familiarity. Written Communication, 18(4), 506-548.

Schrage, M. (1990). Shared minds: The new technologies of collaboration. New York, NY: Random House.

Tsui, L. (1998). A review of research on critical thinking. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED427572).

Warschauer, M. (2000). Online learning in second language classroom: An ethnographic study. In M. Waschauer, & R. Kerm (Eds.), Network-based language teaching: Concepts and practice (pp. 41-58). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Watson, G., & Glaser, E. (1980). Watson– Glaser critical thinking appraisal. England: The Psychological Corporation.

Weigle, S. C. (2002). Assessing writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

White, J. (1998). Getting the learners' attention: A typographical input enhancement study. In C. Doughty, & J. Williams (Eds.), Focus-on-form in second language classroom acquisition (pp. 91-128). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.