The Effect of Various Testing Conditions on Long-Term Retention of Reading Materials: The Case of Initial and Delayed Test Types, and Feedback on Test


1 PhD candidate of TEFL at Allameh Tabataba’i University of Tehran

2 Assistant professor of TESL at University of Bojnord

3 MA student of TEFL at Allameh Tabataba’i University of Tehran


This study investigated various testing conditions for their influence on long-term retention of reading materials. To do so, 84 English as Foreign Language (EFL) learners were randomly selected from a total of 746 and were randomly divided into two equal groups to participate in two experiments. In each experiment, the participants studied some texts and participated in some initial testing conditions before taking a 10-day delayed final exam. The testing conditions of the first experiment were 1) study + simultaneous open-book test, 2) study + open-book test, 3) study + closed-book test + feedback, 4) study + closed-book test, 5) no study no test, and 6) study with no test. The second phase was a replication of the first 5 testing conditions of the first phase accompanied by 3 more conditions, namely, 6) study + study, 7) study + study + study, 8) study + study + study + study. Analysis of variance results showed that different test types, feedback on test, and restudying could differently influence long-term retention. It was found that feedback on test had the highest effect on retention. Similarly, taking a test after study was more influential than restudying. Finally, open-book testing worked better than closed-book testing. 


Article Title [Persian]

تاثیر شرایط مختلف آزمون بر به خاطر سپاری مطالب : مقایسه موردی انواع آزمون های اولیه و با تاخیر و بازخورد به آزمون

Authors [Persian]

  • محمود قره چلو 1
  • محمدرضا قربانی 2
  • فرهاد غیاثوند 3
1 دانشجوی دکترای آموزش زبان انگلیسی در دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی تهران
2 استادیار TESOL در دانشگاه بجنورد
3 دانشجوی دکترای آموزش زبان انگلیسی در دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی تهران
Abstract [Persian]

اگرچه تاثیر انواع آزمون و بازخورد به آزمون بر به خاطرسپاری مطالب به طور گسترده ای مورد مطالعه قرار گرفته است، اما تنها یک مطالعه آنها را با هم مقایسه کرده است ( آگاروال، کارپیک، کانگ، رودیگر و مک درموت، 2007). برای بررسی صحت نتایج، این مطالعه­ مشابه انجام شده است. این مطالعه تجربی به منظور بررسی میزان تاثیر هر یک از شرایط اولیه آزمون بر نگهداری طولانی مدت اطلاعات صورت گرفت. ابتدا 84 زبان آموز به طور تصادفی از مجموع 746 نفر انتخاب شدند و به سه گروه مساوی تقسیم شدند تا در دو آزمایش شرکت کنند. در هر آزمایش، شرکت کنندگان چندین متن را مورد مطالعه قرار داده و در برخی از شرایط آزمون شرکت کردند. شرایط آزمون در آزمایش اول شامل: 1) مطالعه + آزمون کتاب باز به طور همزمان، 2 ) مطالعه + امتحان کتاب باز، 3) مطالعه + آزمون کتاب بسته + بازخورد، 4) مطالعه + آزمون کتاب بسته، 5) بدون مطالعه بدون آزمون کنترل و 6) مطالعه بدون آزمون بود. آزمایش دوم شامل تکرار 5 شرایط آزمونی آزمایش اول به همراه 3 شرایط اضافی شامل، 6) مطالعه+ مطالعه،7 ) مطالعه+ مطالعه+ مطالعه،8 ) مطالعه+ مطالعه+ مطالعه+ مطالعه بود. نتایج تحلیل واریانس نشان داد که انواع مختلف آزمون، بازخورد به آزمون و بازمطالعه می توانند به شکل های متفاوتی بر به­خاطرسپاری مطالب تاثیر بگذارند .همچنین مشخص شد که بازخورد به آزمون بالاترین تاثیر را بر به­خاطرسپاری مطالب دارد. به طرزی مشابه، گرفتن آزمون پس از مطالعه موثرتر از باز مطالعه بود. و در نهایت، آزمون کتاب باز عملکرد بهتری نسبت به آزمون کتاب بسته در این زمینه داشت.

Keywords [Persian]

  • آزمون کتاب بسته
  • آزمون کتاب باز
  • آزمون کتاب بسته به همراه بازخورد
  • دوره مطالعه اولیه
  • حفظ و ماندگاری
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