PhD Candidate of Applied Linguistics at the University of Isfahan, Iran


This paper was an attempt to explore the reading strategy use of Iranian M.A. students with general and discipline-related texts. More specifically, this was an endeavor to see if relation to discipline affects the reading strategy use of the students. To this end, a Nelson test and the reading comprehension section of TOEFL were used to select sixty-five power engineering and physics M.A. students at Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST) to participate in the study. Given the mixed-methods nature of the study, both quantitative, Survey of Reading Strategy Use (SORS), and qualitative, think-aloud protocol, procedures were followed. The participants based their responses to SORS and the think-aloud procedure on the reading comprehension section of TOEFL test and two discipline-related reading comprehension tests. By and large, analysis of these two procedures suggested that reading strategy use did not differ significantly across general and discipline-related texts, as long as power engineering and physics students are concerned. Additionally, whereas power engineering students used strategies more frequently with general reading texts, physics students resorted to strategies more frequently with discipline-related texts.


Article Title [Persian]

بررسی رابطه بین راهبردهای خواندن متون انگلیسی و نوع متن (عمومی و تخصص)

Author [Persian]

  • جواد زارع

دانشجوی دکترای آموزش زبان انگلیسی در دانشگاه اصفهان

Abstract [Persian]

هدف از انجام این پژوهش بررسی راهبردهای خواندن استفاده شده توسط دانشجویان کارشناسی ارشد ایرانی برای خواندن متون عمومی و تخصصی است. با این هدف، از یک آزمون زبان انگلیسی نلسون و بخش درک مطلب یک تست تافل برای انتخاب 65 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد در رشته های فیزیک و مهندسی برق از دانشگاه علم و صنعت استفاده شد. با توجه به طراحی ترکیبی این مطالعه (mixed-methods)، از دو روش کمی (پرسشنامه سورس) و کیفی (بلند فکر کردن) برای جمع آوری و تجزیه داده ها استفاده شد. به طور کلی، نتایج تحقیق نشان داد که راهبردهای خواندن استفاده شده توسط دانشجویان کارشناسی ارشد برای متون عمومی و تخصصی تفاوت چشمگیری ندارد. با این وجود، درحالی که دانشجویان رشته مهندسی برق بیشترین استفاده از راهبردهای خواندن را برای متون عمومی داشتند، دانشجویان رشته فیزیک بیشتر برای متون تخصصی رشته خود از این راهبردها استفاده نمودند.

Keywords [Persian]

  • راهبردهای خواندن
  • متون عمومی و تخصصی
  • بلند فکر کردن

Barker, C., Pistrang, N., & Elliott, R. (2005). Research methods in clinicalpsychology: An introduction for students and practitioners. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

Brown, H. D. (2007). Principles of language learning and teaching.White Plains, New York: Pearson Education.

Carter, R., & Nunan, D. (2001).  The Cambridge guide to teaching English to speakers of other languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Chamot, A. U. (1987). The learning strategies of ESL students. In A. Wenden,

& J. Rubin (Eds.), Learner strategies in language learning, (pp. 71-83). Cambridge: Prentice-Hall.

Chamot, A. U. (2004). Issues in language learning strategy research and

teaching. Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 1, 14-26.

Chamot, A. U. (2005). Language learning strategy instruction: Current issues

and research. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 25, 112-130.

Chamot, A. U. (2007). Accelerating academic achievement of English language learners: A synthesis of five evaluations of the CALLA model. In J. Cummins, & C. Davison (Eds.), The international handbook of English language learning (pp. 317-331). Norwell, MA: Springer.

Chamot, A. U., & Kupper. L. (1989). Learning strategies in foreign language instruction. Foreign Language Annals, 22, 13-24

Chamot, A. U., Barnhardt, S., El-Dinary, P., & Robbins, J., (1996). Methods for teaching learning strategies in the foreign language classroom. In R. L. Oxford (Ed.), Language learning strategies around the world: Cross-cultural perspectives (pp. 175-188). Manoa: University of Hawaii Press.

Cohen, A. D. (1998). Strategies in learning and using a second language. London: Longman.

Cohen, A. D., & Macaro, E. (2007). Conclusions. In A. D. Cohen, & E. Macaro (Eds.), Language learner strategies: Thirty years of research and practice (pp. 275-284). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Crandall, R. (1976). Validation of self-report measures using ratings by others. Sociological Methods & Research, 4, 380-400.

Dörnyei, Z. (2003). Questionnaires in second language research. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Dörnyei, Z. (2005). The psychology of the language learner: Individual differences in second language acquisition. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Ehrman, M., & Oxford, R. L. (1995). Cognition plus: Correlates of language learning success. The Modern Language Journal, 79(1), 67-89.

Eley, M. G. (1992). Differential adoption of study approaches within individual students. Higher Education, 23, 231-254.

Ellis, R. (1994). The study of second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Farhady, H. (1998). Constructing reading comprehension tests. Roshd Foreign Language Teaching Journal, 13, 37-48.

Fiorito, L. (2005). Teaching English for specific purposes. Retrieved from              specific-


Gao, X. (2007). Has language learning strategy research come to an end? A response to Tseng et al. (2006). Applied Linguistics, 28, 615-620.

Garner, R., & Alexander, P. A. (1989). Metacognition: Answered and unanswered questions. Educational Psychologist, 24, 143-158.

Grabe, W. (1991). Current developments in second language reading research. TESOL Quarterly, 25, 375-406.

Grabe, W., & Stoller, F. (2002). Teaching and researching reading. Harlow: Longman.

Green, J. M., & Oxford, R. L. (1995). A closer look at learning strategies, L2 proficiency and gender. TESOL Quarterly, 29, 261-297.

Grenfell, M., & Harris, V. (1999). Modern languages and learning strategies in theory and practice. London: Routledge.

Griffiths, C. (2008). Strategies and good language learners. In C. Griffiths (Ed.), Lessons from good language learners (pp. 83-98). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Griffiths, C. (2013). The strategy factor in successful language learning. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.

Griffiths, C., & Oxford, R. L. (2014). The twenty-first century landscape of language learning strategies: Introduction to this special issue. System, 43, 1-10.

Gu, P. Y. (2005). Vocabulary learning strategies in the Chinese EFL context. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish.

Harish, S. (2014). Social strategy use and language learning contexts: A case study of Malayalee undergraduate students in India. System, 43, 64-73.

Harris, V., Gaspar, A., Jones, B., Ingvarsdottir, H., Palos, I., Neuburg, R., & Schindler, I. (2001). Helping learners learn: Exploring strategy instruction in language classrooms across Europe. Graz, Austria: European Centre for Modern Languages.

Hosenfeld, C. (1977). A preliminary investigation of the reading strategies of successful and unsuccessful second language learners. System, 5, 111-123.

Kavita, G., Sleezer, C., & Russ-Eft, D. (2007). A practical guide to needs assessment. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.

Khaldieh, S. A. (2000). Learning strategies and writing process of proficient vs. less-proficient learners of Arabic. Foreign Language Annals, 33, 522-534.

Kramsch, C. (1993). Context and culture in language teaching. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Ku, P. Y. N. (1997). Predictors of strategy choice by EFL students in Taiwan. Paper presented at RELC Seminar, Singapore.

Kyungsim, H., & Leavell, A. (2006). Language learning strategy use of ESL students in an intensive English learning context. System, 34, 399-415.

Lee, K. R., & Oxford, R. L. (2008). Understanding EFL learners’ strategy use and strategy awareness. Asian EFL Journal 10, 7-32.

Macaro, E. (2006). Strategies for language learning and for language use: Revising the theoretical framework. The Modern Language Journal, 90, 320-337.

McDonough, S. H. (1999). Learner strategies. Language Teaching, 32, 1-18.

Mokhtari, K., & Sheorey, R. (2002). Measuring ESL students’ awareness of reading strategies. Journal of Developmental Education, 25, 2-10.

Naiman, N., Frohlich, M., & Todesco, A. (1975). The good second language learner. TESL Talk, 6, 68-75.

Norton, B., & Toohey, K. (2001). Changing perspectives on good language learners. TESOL Quarterly, 35, 307-322.

Nyikos, M., & Oxford, R. L. (1993). A factor analytic study of language learning strategy use: Interpretations from information-processing theory and social psychology. The Modern Language Journal, 77, 11-22.

O’Malley, J. M., & Chamot, A. U. (1990). Learning strategies in second language acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Oxford, R. L. (1990a). Language learning strategies and beyond: A look at strategies in the context of styles. In S. S. Magnan (Ed.), Shifting the instructional focus to the learner (pp. 35-55). Middlebury, VT: Northeast Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Languages.

Oxford, R. L. (1990b). Language learning strategies: What every teacher should know. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.

Oxford, R. L. (1993). Research on second language strategies. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 13, 175-187.

Oxford, R. L. (1996). Language learning strategies around the world: Cross-cultural perspectives. Manoa, HI: Second Language Teaching and Curriculum Center, University of Hawai’i.

Oxford, R. L. (1999). Relationships between second language learning strategies and language proficiency in the context of learner autonomy and self-regulation. Revista Canaria de Estudios Ingleses, 38, 108-126.

Oxford, R. L. (2003). Language learning styles and strategies: An overview. Oxford, GALA.

Oxford, R. L. (2011). Teaching and researching language learning strategies. Harlow, UK: Pearson Education.

Oxford, R. L., & Nyikos, M. (1989). Variables affecting choice of language learning strategies by university students. The Modern Language Journal, 73, 291-300.

Parilah, M. S., Aminuddin, Y., Suhana, M. L., Nurulhafizah, M., Yurni, E., Shahirah, H., & Hashim, M. (2010). Comparing reading processing strategies of second language readers.  American Journal of Applied Sciences, 7, 140-144.

Reiss, M. A. (1985). The good language learner: Another look. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 41, 511-523.

Rubin, J. (1975). What the “good language learner” can teach us. TESOL Quarterly, 9, 41-51.

Rubin, J. (2008). Reflections. In C. Griffiths (Ed.), Lessons from good language learners (pp. 10-15). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Sheorey, R., & Mokhtari, K. (2001). Differences in the metacognitive awareness of reading strategies among native and non-native readers. System, 29, 431-449.

Skehan, P. (1989). Individual differences in second language learning. London: Edward Arnold.

Stern, H. H. (1975). What can we learn from the good language learner? Canadian Modern Language Review, 34, 304-318.

Takeuchi, O., Griffiths, C., & Coyle, D. (2007). Applying strategies to contexts: The role of individual, situational and group differences. In A. D. Cohen, & E. Macaro (Eds.), Language learner strategies: Thirty years of research and practice (pp. 69-92). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Tseng, W. T., Dörnyei, Z., & Schmitt, N. (2006). A new approach to assessing strategic learning: The case of self-regulation in vocabulary acquisition. Applied Linguistics, 27, 78-102.

Vandergrift, L. (1997). The comprehension strategies of second language (French) listeners: A descriptive study. Foreign Language Annals, 30, 387-409.

Vann, R. J., & Abraham, R. G. (1990). Strategies of unsuccessful language learners. TESOL Quarterly, 24, 177-198.

Wenden, A. L. (1985). Learner strategies, TESOL Newsletter, 19, 1-7.

Wenden, A. L. (1987). Metacognition: An expanded view on the cognitive abilities of L2learners. Language Learning, 37, 573-594.

Wenden, A. L. (1991). Learner strategies for learner autonomy: Planning and implementing learner training for language learners. New York: Prentice Hall.

Woodrow, L. (2005). The challenge of measuring language learning strategies. Foreign Language Annals, 38, 90-98.

Yvonne, J., Vermetten, H., Lodewijks, G., & Vermunt, J. D. (1999). Consistency and variability of learning strategies in different university courses. Higher Education, 37, 1-21.