Effects of Feedback Timing and Willingness to Communicate on the Acquisition of Simple Past Form

Document Type: Research Paper


1 Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University

2 Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz, Iran


A remarkable body of empirical research within form-focused language teaching framework has examined the tripartite dimensions of corrective feedback, i.e., linguistic, contextual and individual aspects, in isolation. Nonetheless, a holistic understanding of the role of oral corrective feedback (CF) in the acquisition of L2 forms seems to rely on uncovering how these dimensions function in interaction with each other. The present study aimed to examine the differential effects of immediate and delayed feedback in the acquisition of English simple past form, and the hypothesized moderating effect of Willingness to Communicate (WTC) on the effectiveness of feedback timing. Sixty pre-intermediate-level Iranian EFL learners participated in an experiment as members of immediate and delayed feedback groups, and each learner was differentiated as either high-WTC or low-WTC, based on the result of WTC questionnaire. The pedagogical gains were assessed with a grammaticality judgment test at three different points of time, pre-test, post-test and delayed post-test. The results of a Two-way ANCOVA showed no significant difference between immediate and delayed CF in short-term and long-term acquisition. Despite the insignificant interaction effect witnessed between feedback timing and WTC, the findings demonstrated that learners with high-WTC in both groups outperformed slightly in comparison to low-WTC learners. The results are interpreted in light of the number and duration of feedback treatment sessions as well as the instruments used for measuring the acquisition outcome. It is suggested that further studies be conducted concerning the interactions between instructional, interactional and learner-internal aspects of CF functioning.


Article Title [Persian]

اثر زمان ارائۀ بازخورد تصحیح گرانه و میل ارتباطی فراگیران در یادگیری شکل گذشته ساده

Authors [Persian]

  • داود امینی 1
  • صالح اشرفی 2
1 دانشگاه شهید مدنی آذربایجان
2 دانشگاه شهید مدنی آذربایجان، تبریز، ایران
Abstract [Persian]

تعدادتعداد قابل توجّهی از پژوهش های تجربی انجام شده در چارچوب آموزش زبان از طریق تمرکز بر فرم زبانی، تلاش نموده اند تا هریک از ابعاد سه گانۀ موضوع بازخورد تصحیح گرانه یعنی جنبه های زبانی، بافتی و فردی را بطور جداگانه مورد بررسی قرار دهند. این در حالیست که به نظر می رسد هرگونه فهم جامع از نقش بازخورد تصحیح گرانه در فراگیری فرم زبان دوم منوط به واکاوی نحوۀ کارکرد هریک از ابعاد مذکور در همکاری با یکدیگر است. هدف ار تحقیق حاضر بررسی تاثیرات متمایز بازخورد فوری و بازخورد تأخیری در فراگیری شکل زمان گذشته ساده در زبان انگلیسی از یک سو و اثر تعدیل کنندگی عامل میل ارتباطی در زبان دوم از سوی دیگر بوده است. به این منظور تعداد 60 نفر از فراگیران ایرانی سطح پیش متوسط زبان انگلیسی در دو گروه بازخورد فوری و بازخورد تأخیری مورد آزمایش قرار گرفتند. هر یک ازشرکت کنندگان بر اساس نتایج پرسشنامۀ میل ارتباطی در زبان دوّم از حیث ارتباطی با برچسب پرمیل و یا کم میل مشخص گردیدند. دستاوردهای فراگیری شکل گذشتۀ ساده به کمک آزمون تشخیص گرامری بودن جملات در سه نقطۀ زمانی پیش آزمون، پس آزمون و پس آزمون مؤخّر اندازه گیری گردید. نتایج آنالیز کوواریانس دوطرفه تفاوتی بین بازخورد فوری و بازخورد تأخیری در یادگیری کوتاه مدت و یا بلند مدّت نشان نداد. از سوی دیگر علیرغم اینکه اثر تعاملی بین زمان ارائۀ بازخورد تصحیح گرانه و میل ارتباطی زبان آموزان به نصاب آماری نرسید، نتایج حاکی از برتری نسبی زبان آموزان با میل ارتباطی بالا در قیاس با زبان آموزان با میل ارتباطی پایین بود. نتایج بدست آمده با توجه به تعداد و مدّت زمان جلسات مربوط به ارائۀ تیمار بازخوردی و نیز ابزار بکاررفته جهت اندازه گیری محصول نهایی آموزش مورد تحلیل قرار گرفته است. در این مقاله بر انجام پژوهش های بیشتر در زمینۀ نحوۀ تعامل جنبه های آموزشی، ارتباطی و درونی فراگیران تأکید شده است.

Keywords [Persian]

  • زمان ارائۀ بازخورد تصحیح گرانه
  • تمرکز بر شکل زبان
  • تفاوتهای فردی
  • بازخورد شفاهی تصحیح گرانه
  • میل ارتباطی
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