Teachers and Learners’ Emotional Intelligence and their Corrective Feedback Practices and Preferences

Document Type: Research Paper


Department of English, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran


The role of corrective feedback (CF) in language learning has recently gained prominence; however, ignoring the interwoven relationship between cognitive/affective factors, along with individual differences, may not lead to efficient results. This mixed methods research examined high/low emotional intelligence (EI) Iranian EFL learners’ CF preferences. This study was grounded in the Chaos Complexity Theory of Larsen-Freeman (1997). Considering complexity theory, learners’ modified outputs were examined to find the related EI components in teacher-learner matched/mismatched conditions. First, using Bar-on Emotional Quotient Inventory,12 teachers and 223 learners were grouped as having high/low EI. Second, learners’ CF preferences were determined through Students’ Preferences Elicitation Questionnaire, including both closed and open-ended questions. Third, utilizing an observation checklist, teachers’ CF practices and learners’ modified outputs in summery telling activity were examined to find the associations among EI components and modified output in teacher-learner matched/mismatched conditions. The quantitative analysis using a number of Chi-square tests and the complementary qualitative data analyses revealed that the high/low EI learners preferred the different CF types. The most frequent successful modified output was associated with certain EI components in the mismatched conditions of EI and CF.The findings provide pertinent implications for practitioners regarding feedback implementation and successful modified output. Furthermore, the findings refer to the necessity of future studies in this area which are discussed in the article.


Article Title [Persian]

هوش هیجانی معلمان و زبان آموزان و روش های بازخورد اصلاحی و ترجیحات آنها

Authors [Persian]

  • احسان نریمانی واحدی
  • مهناز سعیدی
  • نسرین حدیدی تمجیدی
Abstract [Persian]

نقش بازخورد اصلاحی (CF) در یادگیری زبان اخیرا به موضوع مهمی تبدیل شده است؛ با این حال، نادیده گرفتن رابطه بین فاکتورهای شناختی / عاطفی با تفاوت های فردی، ممکن است منجر به نتایج کارآمدی نشود. تحقیق ترکیبی حاضر، هوش هیجانی بالا و پایین (EI) را در مورد ترجیح انتخاب بازخورد اصلاحی بررسی کرده است. این مطالعه بر اساس نظریه پیچیدگی (Larsen-Freeman (1997) پایه ریزی شده است. با توجه به تئوری پیچیدگی، تولید زبانی اصلاح شده ی یادگیرندگان برای پیدا کردن مولفه های مربوط به هوش هیجانی در شرایط همسان / غیر همسان معلم-یادگیرنده مورد بررسی قرار گرفته شده است. ابتدا با استفاده از پرسشنامه هوش هیجانی بار، 12 معلم و 223 فراگیر با هوش هیجانی بالا / پایین گروه بندی شدند. سپس، ترجیحات بازخورد اصلاحی دانشجویان با استفاده از پرسشنامه که شامل سوالات با جواب کوتاه و بلند بود، مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. به علاوه، با استفاده از چک لیست مشاهدات، شیوه های آموزش معلمان و نتایج اصلاح یادگیرندگان در فعالیت های خلاصه گویی شفاهی مورد بررسی قرار گرفت تا ارتباط میان مولفه های مربوط به هوش هیجانی و تولید زبانی اصلاح شده ی یادگیرندگان را در شرایط همسان / غیر همسان معلم-یادگیرنده مورد بررسی قرار داده شود. تجزیه و تحلیل کمی با استفاده از از آزمون های خی دو (Chi-square) و تجزیه و تحلیل داده های کیفی به صورت مکمل نشان داد که زبان آموزان با هوش هیجانی بالا / پایین انواع مختلف بازخورد اصلاحی را ترجیح دادند. شایعترین مؤلفه موفق در ارتباط با برخی مولفه های مربوط به هوش هیجانی در شرایط عدم انطباق هوش هیجانی و بازخورد اصلاحی بود. نتایج نشانگر موارد مهمی برای معلمان در خصوص بازخورد و موفقیت تولید زبانی اصلاح شده ی یادگیرندگان وجود دارد. علاوه بر این، یافته ها به ضرورت مطالعات آینده در این زمینه اشاره دارند که در مقاله مورد بحث قرار می گیرند.

Keywords [Persian]

  • هوش هیجانی
  • بازخورد اصلاحی
  • زبان تولیدی اصلاح شده
  • نظریه پیچیدگی
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