Investigating Factors Underlying Iranian High School English Teachers’ (De)motivation

Document Type: Research Paper


1 Department of English language and literature, Vali-e-Asr University,

2 MA graduate from the Department of English language and literature, Vali-e-Asr University


Teacher motivation is of paramount importance to the growth of any education system. Despite its significance, the topic has been largely overlooked at the expense of learner motivation research. To further investigate the issue, a questionnaire was developed to find the status of teacher (de)motivation and its underlying components within the Iranian context. The survey also examined the difference between male versus female, and English language versus non-English subject teachers in terms of their (de)motivation. The participants consisted of 509 secondary school teachers from 18 Iranian cities. The questionnaire content was grounded on a focus-group interview as well as a number of extant need-based motivational theories. Upon data collection, a Principal Components Analysis was conducted to identify the minimally optimum items of the so-called 'need-based teacher motivation inventory' (NTMI). The findings underscored English teachers’ low motivation, suggesting that secondary school English teachers were less dissatisfied with their school administration and colleagues, the work environment, and the job itself. However, they felt demotivated by meagre earnings, inequity in payment, lack of autonomy and recognition, poor contribution to decision-makings, inadequacy of in-service training programs, unfair opportunities for promotion, non-standard teacher evaluation criteria, and unappealing instructional materials. The results also showed no difference between female teachers and their male counterparts. Nevertheless, English-subject teachers were found to be less motivated. Iranian Ministry of Education seems to be in desperate need of restoring the dignity of its staff through investing in improved services, reasonable payment, and imparting the recognition that teachers deserve.


Article Title [Persian]

بررسی عوامل موثر بر بی انگیزگی معلمان زبان انگلیسی سطح متوسطه در ایران

Authors [Persian]

  • محمد حسن زاده 1
  • منوره جعفری 2
1 گروه زبان و ادبیات انگلیسی، دانشگاه ولی عصر رفسنجان
2 دانش آموخته دوره کارشناسی ارشد از گروه زبان و ادبیات انگلیسی، دانشگاه ولی عصر رفسنجان
Abstract [Persian]

انگیزه معلم نقش کلیدی در رشد هر دستگاه آموزشی دارد. علیرغم اهمیت آن، پژوهشگران زبان دوم به قیمت بررسی مقوله انگیزه فراگیران، موضوع را تا حد زیادی نادیده گرفته اند. برای کنکاش بیشتر این موضوع، پرسشنامه ای برای پی بردن به وضعیت انگیزه معلمان و اجزای تشکیل دهنده آن طراحی شد. این بررسی همچنین تفاوت بین مردان و زنان و همچنین معلمین زبان انگلیسی و غیر زبان انگلیسی را از لحاظ میزان انگیزه مورد بررسی قرار داد. شرکت کنندگان شامل 509 معلم متوسطه از 18 شهر ایران بودند. محتوای پرسشنامه بر اساس یک مصاحبه گروهی و همچنین تعدادی از نظریه های انگیزشی نیازمحور پایه ریزی گردید.. پس از جمع آوری داده ها، تحلیل عاملی بمنظور شناسایی آیتمهای حداقلی بهینه این پرسشنامه انجام شد .یافته ها به کم انگیزگی معلمان اشاره داشت و نشان داد که معلمان انگلیسی متوسطه کمتر از مدیر مدرسه و همکاران خود، محیط کار و شغلشان ناراضی بودند. با این حال، آنها از درآمد اندک و پرداخت نامنظم برای اضافه کاری، نابرابری در پرداخت، عدم استقلال و تشویق، سهم اندک در تصمیم گیری ها، برنامه های آموزش ضمن خدمت نامناسب، فرصت های ناعادلانه برای ارتقاء، معیارهای ارزیابی غیراستاندارد معلمان و مواد آموزشی غیرجذاب ناراضی بودند. نتایج نشان داد از لحاظ انگیزه بین معلمین زن و مرد تفاوت معنی داری وجود ندارد. با این حال، معلمان زبان انگلیسی انگیزه کمتری از معلمان غیر انگلیسی داشتند. به نظر می رسد نهاد آموزش و پرورش باید اقدامات موثرتری را نسبت به سرمایه گذاری در مسیر تعالی شان معلمین تحت استخدام خود از طرقی نظیر بهبود خدمات، ارتقاء حقوق و مزایا، و منزلت بخشی به آنها در پیش گیرد.

Keywords [Persian]

  • اداره آموزش و پرورش
  • پرسشنامه نیازمحور انگیزه معلمان (ان تی ام آی)
  • انگیزه معلم
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