Enhancing Vocabulary Learning and Self-regulation via a Mobile Application: An Investigation of the Memrise App

Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

1 University of Kurdistan

2 Allameh Tabataba’i University

Abstract

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of the use of mobile application (app) of Memrise on the second language (L2) vocabulary learning and self-regulatory capacity in vocabulary acquisition. In so doing, a sample of 59 Iranian English-as-a-foreign language (EFL) learners from two intact classes participated in this quasi-experimental study. The two classes were randomly assigned to the experimental group (N=33) and the control group (N=26). Over a period of 13-week semester, the students in the experimental group made use of Memrise app to learn the new vocabulary items while those in the control group learned the new words traditionally without use of any app or technological devices. The multiple choice recognition test of vocabulary and self-regulating capacity in vocabulary learning scale were administered to collect the data. The findings revealed that Memrise helped students improve their L2 vocabulary learning and self-regulating capacity more than the control group. The findings provide implications for L2 researchers and practitioners.

Keywords


Article Title [Persian]

تقویت یادگیری واژگان و یادگیری خودتنظیمی از طریق اپلیکیشن گوشی همراه: بررسی نرم افزار Memrise

Authors [Persian]

  • جلیل فتحی 1
  • فروغ علیپور 2
  • عبدالباسط سعیدیان 2

Keywords [Persian]

  • Memrise
  • یادگیری برنامه
  • یادگیری واژگان
  • خود تنظیم
  • MALL
Ahn, T. Y., & Lee, S. M. (2015). User experience of a mobile speaking application with automatic speech recognition for EFL learning. British Journal of Educational Technology, 47(4), 778–786.

Amirian, S. M. R., Mallahi, O., & Zaghi, D. (2015). The relationship between Iranian EFL learners' self-regulatory vocabulary strategy use and their vocabulary size. Iranian Journal of Language Teaching Research, 3(2), 29-46.

Awada, G. (2016). Effect of WhatsApp on critique writing proficiency and perceptions toward learning. Cogent Education, 3(1), 1264173(1-25).

Brown, M., Castellano, J., Hughes, E., & Worth, A. (2012). Integration of iPads into a Japanese university English language curriculum. The JALT CALL Journal, 8(3), 197-209.

Burston, J. (2014). The reality of mall: Still on the fringes. Calico Journal, 31(1), 103–125.

Cárdenas-Robledo, L. A., & Peña-Ayala, A. (2018). Ubiquitous learning: A systematic review. Telematics and Informatics, 35(5), 1097-1132.

Castañeda, D. A., & Cho, M. H. (2016). Use of a game-like application on a mobile device to improve accuracy in conjugating Spanish verbs. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 29(7), 1195-1204.

Chang, C. W., Lee, J. H., Chao, P. Y., Wang, C. Y., & Chen, G. D. (2010). Exploring the possibility of using Humanoid Robots as instructional tools for teaching a second language in primary school. Educational Technology & Society, 13(2), 13–24.

Chapelle, C. (1998). Multimedia CALL: Lessons to be learned from research on instructed SLA. Language Learning and Technology, 2(1), 22-34.

Chapelle, C. A. (2008). Computer assisted language learning. In B. Spolsky & F. Hult (Eds.), The handbook of educational linguistics. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.

Chen, X. B., & Kessler, G. (2013). Action research tablets for informal language learning: Student usage and attitudes. Language Learning & Technology, 17(1), 20–36.

Chen, C. M., & Chung, C. J. (2008). Personalized mobile English vocabulary learning system based on item response theory and learning memory cycle. Computers & Education, 51(2), 624–645.

Dashtestani, R. (2016). Moving bravely towards mobile learning: Iranian students' use of mobile devices for learning English as a foreign language. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 29(4), 815-832.

Derakhshan, A., & Kaivanpanah, S. (2011). The Impact of text-messaging on EFL freshmen’s vocabulary learning. European Association for Computer Assisted Language Learning, 39, 47–56.

Dörnyei, Z.(2005). The psychology of the language learner: Individual differences in second language acquisition. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Ebadi, S., Weisi, H., Monkaresi, H., & Bahramlou, K. (2018). Exploring lexical inferencing as a vocabulary acquisition strategy through computerized dynamic assessment and static assessment. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 31(7), 790-817.

Ebadi, S., Vakilifard, A., & Bahramlou, K. (2018). Learning Persian vocabulary through reading: The effects of noticing and computerized dynamic assessment. Cogent Education, 5(1), 1-15.

Fitzsimons, G. M., & Finkel, E. J. (2011). Outsourcing self-regulation. Psychological Science, 22(3), 369-375.

Folse, K. S. (2004). Vocabulary myths: Applying second language research to classroom teaching. MI: University of Michigan Press.

Ghobadi, S., & Taki, S. (2018). Effects of Telegram stickers on English vocabulary learning: Focus on Iranian EFL learners. Research in English language pedagogy, 6(1), 139-158.

Godwin-Jones, R. (2011). Emerging technologies: Mobile apps for language learning. Language Learning & Technology, 15(2), 2–11.

Gooniband Shooshtari, Z., Jalilifar, A., & Khazaie, S. (2013). Mobile, L2 vocabulary learning, and fighting illiteracy: A case study of Iranian semi-illiterates beyond transition level. Applied Research on English Language, 2(2), 65-79.

Gordani, Y. (2013). The effect of the integration of corpora in reading comprehension classrooms on English as a foreign language learners' vocabulary development. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 26(5), 430-445.

Guirguis, R., & Antigua, K. C. (2017). DLLs and the development of self-regulation in early childhood. Cogent Education, 4(1), 1355628(1-16).

Hao, Y., Lee, K. S., Chen, S. T., & Sim, S. C. (2018). An evaluative study of a mobile application for middle school students struggling with English vocabulary learning. Computers in Human Behavior. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2018.10.013

Heidari Tabrizi, H., & Onvani, N. (2018). The impact of employing telegram app on Iranian EFL beginners’ vocabulary teaching and learning. Applied Research on English Language, 7(1), 1-18.

Huang, Y. M., & Huang, Y. M. (2015). A scaffolding strategy to develop handheld sensor-based vocabulary games for improving students’ learning motivation and performance. Educational Technology Research and Development, 63(5), 691–708.

Hung, P. H., Hwang, G. J., & Su, I. (2012). A concept-map integrated dynamic assessment system for improving ecology observation competences in mobile learning activities. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology-TOJET, 11(1), 10-19.

Kerr, P. (2015). Adaptive learning. ELT Journal, 70(1), 88-93.

Khaddage, F. & Lattemann, C. (2013). iTeach We Learn Via Mobile Apps "a Case Study in a Business Course". In R. McBride & M. Searson (Eds.), Proceedings of SITE 2013--Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference (pp. 3225-3233). New Orleans, Louisiana, United States: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE).

Khezrlou, S., & Sadeghi, K. (2012). Glossing mode in self-regulated vocabulary learning, and its relationship with gender, age, and field of study. The Journal of Asia TEFL, 9(3), 51-74.

Kim, H. S. (2013). Emerging mobile apps to improve English listening skills. Multimedia-Assisted Language Learning, 16(2), 11-30.

Kim, H., & Kwon, Y. (2012). Exploring smartphone applications for effective Mobile Assisted Language Learning. Multimedia-Assisted Language Learning, 16(1), 31–57.

Kukulska-Hulme, A., (2006). Mobile language learning now and in the future. In P. Svensson (Ed.), From vision to practice: Language learning and IT (pp. 295–310). Sweden: Swedish Net University.

Kukulska-Hulme, A., & Shield, L. (2008). An overview of mobile assisted language learning: From content delivery to supported collaboration and interaction. ReCALL, 20(3), 271–289.

Kumaravadivelu, B. (2012). Language teacher education for a global society: A modular model for knowing, analyzing, recognizing, doing, and seeing. New York, NY: Routledge.

Lafford, P. (2011). Afterword - iPads in the language classroom. In B. R. Facer & M. Abdous (Eds.), Academic podcasting and mobile assisted language learning: Applications and outcomes (pp. 196–197). Hershey, pa: IGI Global.

Lantolf, J. P., & Poehner, M. E. (2008). Dynamic assessment. In E. Shohamy & N. H. Hornberger (Eds.), Encyclopedia of language and education, (Vol. 7, pp. 273–284). New York: Springer Science +Business Media, LLC.

Li, Z., & Hegelheimer, V. (2013). Mobile-assisted grammar exercises: Effects on self-editing in L2 writing. Language Learning & Technology, 17(3), 135–156.

Lightbown, P. M., Spada, N., Ranta, L., & Rand, J. (1993). How languages are learned. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

Lin, C. C. (2014). Learning English reading in a mobile-assisted extensive reading program. Computers & Education, 78, 48–59.

Lin, J. J., & Lin, H. (2019). Mobile-assisted ESL/EFL vocabulary learning: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 1-42. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2018.1541359

Liu, P. L., & Chen, C. J. (2015). Learning English through actions: A study of mobile-assisted language learning. Interactive Learning Environments, 23(2), 158–171.

López, J. J. C. (2018). Technology for teaching vocabulary. In J. I., Liontas (Ed.), The TESOL Encyclopedia of English Language Teaching (Vol. 1, pp. 1-7). Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118784235.eelt0446

Ma, Q. (2017). A multi-case study of university students’ language-learning experience mediated by mobile technologies: a socio-cultural perspective. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 30(3), 183-203.

Mashru, D., & Upadhyay, A. (2015). Enriching vocabulary through WhatsApp: an innovative approach of ELT using ICT. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/321071620

Meskill, C. (1999). Computers as tools for sociocollaborative language learning. In K. Cameron (Ed.), CALL: Media, design and applications (pp. 141–164). The Netherlands: Swets & Zeitlinger.

Morgana, V., & Shrestha, P. N. (2018). Investigating Students' and Teachers' Perceptions of Using the iPad in an Italian English as a Foreign Language Classroom. International Journal of Computer-Assisted Language Learning and Teaching (IJCALLT), 8(3), 29-49.

Motallebzadeh, K., & Ganjali, R. (2011). SMS: Tool for L2 vocabulary retention and reading comprehension ability. Journal of Language Teaching & Research, 2(5), 1111-1115.

 Nation, I. S. P. (2001). Learning vocabulary in another language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

 Oxford, R. (1990). Language learning strategies: What every teacher should know. New York. Newbury House.

Pallant, J. (2013). SPSS survival manual: A Step by Step guide to data analysis using IBM SPSS. McGraw-Hill Education (UK): Open University Press.

Poehner, M. E., & Leontjev, D. (2018). To correct or to cooperate: Mediational processes and L2 development. Language Teaching Research, First Published July 16, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168818783212

Rachels, J. R., & Rockinson-Szapkiw, A. J. (2018). The effects of a mobile gamification app on elementary students’ Spanish achievement and self-efficacy. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 31(1-2), 72-89.

Reynolds, B. L., & Anderson, T. A. F. (2015). Extra-dimensional in-class communications: Action research exploring text chat support of face-to-face writing. Computers and Composition, 35, 52–64.

Rose, H. (2011). Reconceptualizing strategic learning in the face of self-regulation: Throwing language learning strategies out with the bathwater. Applied Linguistics, 33(1), 92-98.

Rosell-Aguilar, F. (2009). Podcasting for language learning: re-examining the potential. In L. Lomicka, & G. Lord (Eds.), The Next Generation: Social Networking and Online Collaboration in Foreign Language Learning (pp. 13–34). San Marco: Calico, Texas, USA.

Rosell-Aguilar, F. (2016). User evaluation of language learning mobile applications: A case study with learners of Spanish. In A. Palalas & M. Ally (Eds.), The International Handbook of Mobile-Assisted Language Learning (pp. 545 581). Beijing: China Central Radio & TV University Press.

Rosell-Aguilar, F. (2018). Autonomous language learning through a mobile application: a user evaluation of the busuu app. Computer Assisted LanguageLearning, 31(8), 854-881.

Sandberg, J., Maris, M., & de Geus, K. (2011). Mobile English learning: An evidence-based study with fifth graders. Computers & Education, 57(1), 1334-1347.

Şahin Kızıl, A., & Savran, Z. (2018). Assessing self-regulated learning: The case of vocabulary learning through information and communication technologies. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 31(5-6), 599-616.

Skehan, P. (2003) Focus on form, tasks, and technology. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 16(5), 391-411.

Steel, C. (2012). Fitting learning into life: language students’ perspectives on benefits of using mobile apps. In M. Brown, & M. Hartnett, (Eds.), Proceedings of ASCILITE 2012, 25-28 November (pp. 875-880). Ascilite: New Zealand.

Stockwell, G. (2013). Technology and motivation in English language teaching and learning. In E. Ushioda (Ed.), International perspectives in motivation: Language learning and professional challenges (pp. 156-175). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Sung, Y. T., Chang, K. E., & Liu, T. C. (2016). The effects of integrating mobile devices with teaching and learning on students' learning performance: A meta-analysis and research synthesis. Computers & Education, 94, 252-275.

Tabatabaei, O., & Goojani, A. H. (2012). The impact of text-messaging on vocabulary learning of Iranian EFL learners. Cross-Cultural Communication, 8(2), 47-55.

Tseng, W. T., Dörnyei, Z., & Schmitt, N. (2006). A new approach to assessing strategic learning: The case of self-regulation in vocabulary acquisition. Applied Linguistics, 27(1), 78-102.

Vygotsky, L. S. (1986). Thought and language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Wang, Y. H. (2016). Promoting contextual vocabulary learning through an adaptive computer‐assisted EFL reading system. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 32(4), 291-303.

Wu, T. T. (2016). English reading e-book system integrating grouping and guided reading mechanisms based on the analysis of learning portfolios. Journal of Internet Technology, 17(2), 231–241.

Yeşilbursa, A., & Bilican, R. (2013). Validation of self-regulatory capacity in vocabulary learning scale in Turkish. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 70, 882-886.

Zhang, H., Song, W., & Burston, J. (2011). Reexamining the effectiveness of vocabulary learning via mobile phones. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology-TOJET, 10(3), 203-214.

Ziegler, N. (2015). The predictive value of the self-regulating capacity in vocabulary learning scale. Applied linguistics, 36(5), 641-647.

Zou, B., & Li, J. (2015). Exploring mobile apps for English language teaching and learning. In F. Helm, L. Bradley, M. Guarda, & S. Thouesny (Eds.), Critical CALL - Proceedings of the 2015 EUROCALL Conference (pp. 564-568). Padova: Italy.