Developing and Validating a Pluralistic Curriculum (PC) Model for English Teaching in Iranian High Schools

Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

1 Department of Foreign Language & Linguistics, Shiraz University, International Campus, Shiraz, Iran

2 Shiraz University

Abstract

Background: In the so-called global village, individuals should learn to adapt themselves to cultural and social changes. One manifestation of the changes in societies is the emergence of pluralistic/multicultural societies which necessitates using intercultural/pluralistic education elements in education systems.
Purpose: This study aimed at developing and validating a Pluralistic Curriculum (PC) model for English language teaching (ELT) in Iranian high schools.
Method: To this aim, a concurrent design (qualitative + quantitative) within a mixed methods approach was used. Participants of the study were 30 Iranian (17 male and 13 female) curriculum experts from Iranian Curriculum Studies Association (ICSA) who were selected through snowball sampling.
Results: Results of data analysis revealed the following components for PC: pluralistic education, pluralistic evaluation, racial and ethnic equality, social class equality, linguistic diversity and equality, gender equality, cultural diversity and tolerance of difference. Results of data analysis also showed that the proposed model consists of four elements namely, content, teaching/learning Strategies/methods, evaluation and goal. Moreover, it was found that the proposed PC model is valid from the viewpoint of the curriculum experts.
Conclusions/implications: This promising finding implies that the proposed model can be implemented by ELT practitioners in the Iranian high schools. Furthermore, it can be used as a valid scale to see whether educational curriculums most particularly EFL/ESL curriculums at different levels (primary, junior high school, high school, and tertiary education) are developed in line with pluralistic curriculum or not.

Keywords


Article Title [Persian]

طراحی و اعتبارسنجی یک الگوی برنامه درسی کثرت گرا برای آموزش زبان انگلیسی در دبیرستان های ایران

Authors [Persian]

  • خاطره ظهرابی 1
  • سید آیت الله رزمجو 2
  • علیرضا احمدی 2
Abstract [Persian]

پیش زمینه: در دهکده جهانی مصطلح، افراد باید بیاموزند که خودشان را با تغییرات فرهنگی و اجتماعی وفق دهند. یکی از نمودهای این تغییرات در جوامع، ظهور جوامع کثرت گرا/چندفرهنگی است که استفاده از عناصر آموزش کثرت گرا/چندفرهنگی را در نظام های آموزشی ملزم می کند.
هدف: هدف از این پژوهش، طراحی و اعتبارسنجی یک الگوی برنامه درسی کثرت گرا برای آموزش زبان انگلیسی در دبیرستان های ایران بود.
روش: بدین منظور، از یک طرح همزمان (کیفی+کمّی) با رویکرد ترکیبی استفاده شد. شرکت کنندگان در این تحقیق شامل 30 متخصص برنامه درسی ایرانی (17 مرد و 13 زن) از انجمن برنامه ریزی مطالعات برنامه ریزی درسی ایران می شدند که از طریق نمونه گیری گلوله برفی انتخاب شده بودند.
نتایج: با تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها، مؤلفه های زیر برای برنامه درسی کثرت گرا شناسایی شد: آموزش کثرت گرا، ارزشیابی کثرت گرا، برابری قومی و نژادی، برابری طبقه اجتماعی، برابری و تنوع زبانی، برابری جنسیتی، تنوع فرهنگی و تحمل تفاوت. همچنین، نشان داده شد که الگوی طراحی شده از چهار عنصر محتوا، راهبردها/روش های تدریس/یادگیری، ارزشیابی و اهداف تشکیل شده است. همچنین، مشخص شد که الگوی طراحی شده از دیدگاه متخصصان برنامه ریزی درسی معتبر است.
نتیجه گیری/کاربردها: این یافته نویدبخش دال بر این است که می توان این الگو را درعرصه آموزش زبان انگلیسی در دبیرستان های ایران بکار گرفت. همچنین می توان این الگو را بعنوان مقیاسی معتبر برای ارزشیابی برنامه های درسی زبان انگلیسی در سطوح مختلف متوسطه از نظر سازگاری با برنامه درسی کثرت گرا مورد استفاده قرار داد.

Keywords [Persian]

  • برنامه درسی
  • کثرت گرایی
  • برنامه درسی کثرت گرا
  • الگوی برنامه درسی کثرت گرا
  • آموزش کثرت گرا
Abdeli Soltan Ahmadi, J., & Sadeghi, A.R. (2016). Designing and validating multicultural curriculum model in Iran public educational. Journal of Curriculum Studies (J.C.S.), 10(39), 71-108.

Adams, J. (2004). Room 13 and the contemporary practice of artist-learners. Retrieved from room13international.org/wp-content/.../Room-13-article-Jeff-Adams-Goldsmiths.pdf

Aikman, S., & Unterhalter, E., Eds. (2007). Practising gender equality in education. Oxford, Oxfam GB. 

Ary, D., Jacobs, L. C., & Sorensen, Ch. (2010). Introduction to research in Education (8th ed.). Belmont: Wadsworth Group.

Budzinski, O. (2008). Monoculture versus diversity in competition economics. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 32(2), 295–324.

Colombo, M. (2013). Introduction. Pluralism in education and implications for analysis. Italian Journal of Sociology of Education, 5(2) , 1-16.

Daryai-Hansen, P., Gerber, B., Lorinez, I., Haller, M., Ivanova, O., Krumm, H-J., & Reich, H.H. (2015). Pluralistic approaches to language in the curriculum: the case of French-speaking Switzerland, Spain and Austria. International Journal of Multilingualism, 12(1), 109-127.

Dow, S. (1996). The methodology of macroeconomic thought. Cheltenham: Elgar.

Dow, S. (1997). Methodological pluralism and pluralism of method, In A. Salanti and E. Screpanti, eds) Pluralism in economics, Cheltenham: Elgar.

Dow, S. (2004). Uncertainty and monetary policy. Oxford Economic Papers, 56, 539–61.

Ferrero, D. J. (2003). Embracing Pedagogical Pluralism: An Educator’s Case for (at Least Public) School Choice. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 11(30), 1-21.

Giselbrecht, M. (2009). Pluralistic approaches – A long overdue paradigm shift in education. Scottish Languages Review , 11-20.

Gollnick, D. M., & Chinn, P. C. (2002). Multicultural education in a pluralistic society (6th ed.). New York: Merrill.

Haejong, J. (2009). A critical evaluation of John Hick's religious pluralism in light of his eschatological model.  Doctoral dissertation, Andrews University. Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.andrews.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1069&context=dissertations

Herz, B., & Sperling, G.B. (2004). What works in girls' education: Evidence and politics from the developing World. New York: Council on Foreign Relations.

Honnett, A. (1992). Kampf  um anerkennung. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp.

Mäki, U. (1997). The one world and the many theories, in (Andrea Salanti and Ernesto Screpanti, eds.), Pluralism in economics, Cheltenham: Elgar.

McConnell, K. F. (2008). Inventing pluralistic education: Compulsory schooling as a technique of democratic deliberation.  Retrieved from http://media.proquest.com/media/pq/classic/doc/1650506661/fmt/ai/rep/NPDF?_s=f1Z5WfADLw9kyjZG9vqw0q8%2BMyk%3D

Mearman, A. (2008). Pluralism and heterodoxy: introduction to the Special Issue. Journal of Philosophical Economics, 1(2), 5–25.

Mohammadi, Sh., Kamal Kharazi, S.A.N., Kazemifard, M., & Pourkarim, J. (2016). Proposing a model for multicultural education in higher education: Investigating experts’ opinions in Iran. Journal of Research in Teaching, 4(1), 65-91.

Mostafazadeh, E., Keshtiaray, N., & Ghulizadeh, A. (2015). Analysis of multi-cultural education concept in order to explain its components. Journal of Education and Practice, 6(1), 1-14.

Motamed, H. R., Yarmohammadian, M. H., & Yusefy, A. (2014). Position of pluralistic approach in the Iranian curriculum. International Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Research, 3(3), 218-226.

Motamed, H. R., Yarmohammadian, M. H., & Yusefy, A. R. (2013a). Designing a pluralistic curriculum model for the Iranian education system. Academia Arena, 5 (9) , 31-39.

Motamed, H. R., Yarmohammadian, M. H., & Yusefy, A. R. (2013b). Comparative study of pluralistic & unitarianism approaches concerning elements of curriculum. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 83, 831-835.

Pring, R. (2004). Philosophy of Education. Aims, Theory, Common Sense and Research. London: Continuum.

Riazi, A. M. & Razmjou, L. (2004). Developing some guidelines for a change in the program of English translation in Iranian Universities. Journal of social sciences and humanities of Shiraz University, 21(1), 28-39.

Sadeghi, A.R. (2010). Reviewing the national curriculum of the I.R. of Iran using a multicultural approach. Journal of Curriculum Studies (J.C.S.),5(18), 190-215.

Sadeghi, A.R. (2012). Characteristics and necessities of developing a multicultural curriculum in Iran. Cultural Strategy, 18, 93-121.

Stika, P. (2012). The role of values in teaching. Bachelor thesis, Masaryk University. Retrieved from http://is.muni.cz/th/327584/pedf_b/Petr_Stika_-_Bachelor_thesis_-_The_Role_of_Values_in_Teaching.pdf

Stilwell, F. (2006). Four reasons for pluralism in the teaching of economics.Australasian Journal of Economics Education, 3(1&2), 42-54.

Subrahmanian, R. (2005). Scaling up good practices in girls’ education. Paris: UNESCO.

Taylor, C. (1992). The politics of recognition. Princeton: Princeton University press.

UNESCO. (2010). EFA global monitoring report 2010: Reaching the marginalized. Paris: UNESCO.

UNESCO. (2003). EFA global monitoring report 2003/4: Gender and education for all: The leap to equality. Paris: UNESCO.

Unterhalter, E. (2007). Global Values and Gender Equality in Education: Needs, rights and capabilities. In S. Fennell & M. Arnot (Eds.), Gender education and equality in a global context: Conceptual frameworks and policy perspectives (pp. 19-34). London and New York: Routledge.

USAID. (2008). Gender equality framework. Washington, DC: USAID.

Wilson, D. (2003).  Human rights promoting gender equality in and through education, Background paper for EFA global monitroing report 2003/04.  Paris:  UNESCO.