The role of increasing task cognitive-complexity in quality of L2 writing and learners’ distribution of metacognitive sub-processes

Document Type: Research Paper


1 Petroleum University of Ahvaz Iran Language Institute

2 Sheikhbahaee University


The importance of task-based instruction for developing writing as one of the most demanding tasks within SLA field is neglected in many EFL/ESL contexts. The researchers in this study intended to investigate the role of task manipulation in developing EFL learners’ grammatical accuracy and lexical complexity of argumentative writing. Furthermore, the task-manipulation effects on the frequency of three meta-cognitive sub-processes of generation, elaboration and organization of ideas were explored. To this end, 50 Iranian EFL learners from Sheikhbahaee University of Esfahan were selected based on their availability and their performance on the Oxford Placement Test. Then, they were randomly assigned to three experimental groups, and one control group. The data were collected individually through a task of writing, think-aloud protocol and retrospective interview. The results showed positive effects of task manipulation along resource-dispersing dimension on the grammatical accuracy and the positive effects of task manipulation along resource-directing dimensions on the lexical complexity. However, the results of the frequency of meta-cognitive sub-processes were indicative of the positive effects of task manipulation on the generation and elaboration of ideas but not on the organization of ideas. The study suggests that there is a trade-off effect at work which is responsible for the quality of the writing and the frequency of the metacognitive sub-processes.


Article Title [Persian]

تاثیر افزایش پیچیدگی شناختی تکلیف بر کیفیت نوشتار در زبان دوم و توزیع زیرفرآیندهای فراشناختی زبان آموزان

Authors [Persian]

  • نیلوفر دانش خواه 1
  • احمد علی بابایی 2
Abstract [Persian]

اهمیت و تاثیر آموزش ِ تکلیف محور بر توسعه ی مهارت نوشتاری به عنوان یکی از سخت ترین تکالیف در حوزه ی فراگیری زبان دوم و در بافت آموزشی ایران چندان مورد توجه قرار نگرفته است. محققین در این پژوهش به بررسی نقش دستکاری شرایط نوشتار بر توسعه ی دقت ساختاری و پیچیدگی لغوی زبان آموزان در نوشتار مباحثه ای پرداختند. این پژوهش همچنین تاثیر عوامل فوق الذکر را بر توزیع سه زیرفرآیند فرا شناختی با عنوان های ایجاد ایده های نو در نوشتار، بسط و پرداخت ایده ها و نیز دقت در انسجام آنها، بررسی کرد.  . بدین منظور 50 دانشجوی رشته ی زبان انگلیسی از دانشگاه شیخ بهائی اصفهان بر اساس میزان دسترسی و همچنین براساس عملکرد آنها در آزمون تعیین سطح آکسفورد انتخاب شدند. سپس این 50 شرکت کننده به طور تصادفی به سه گروه تقسیم شدند تا دو گروه آزمایش و یک گروه کنترل این مطالعه را تشکلیل دهند. داده های این مطالعه به صورت فرد به فرد و از طریق یک تکلیف نوشتاری، شیوه بلند فکر کردن و بعد از آن یک مصاحبه بازنگری جمع آوری شد. نتایج تاثیر مثبت دستکاری شرایط را بر دقت نوشتار از طریق پراکندگی منابع شناختی و نیز تاثیر مثبت دستکاری شرایط از طریق هدایت منابع شناختی بر پیچیدگی لغوی نوشتار را نشان داد. اگرچه نتایج بررسی توزیع زیرفرآیند های فراشناختی بیانگر تاثیر مثبت دستکاری شرایط بر ایجاد ایده های نو و بسط و پرداخت این ایده ها بود اما بر دقت در انسجام ایده ها تاثیرگذار نبود. با توجه به آنچه از این بررسی ها حاصل شد، این مطالعه بیان میدارد که کیفیت نوشتار و نیز تناوب توزیع زیرفرآیند های فراشناختی تحت تاثیر دستکاری دشواری تکلیف وابسطه به یک رابطه جایگزینی است.

Keywords [Persian]

  • فرآیند های شناختی
  • تناوب
  • دستکاری دشواری تکلیف
  • هدایت منابع شناختی
  • پراکندگی منابع شناختی
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