Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

1 PhD candidate, English Language Department, Bonab Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bonab, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, English Language Department, Maragheh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Maragheh, Iran

Abstract

Teachers wish their learners not to take all provided information for granted; rather, they expect to enable their learners to develop higher order thinking skills and to be reflective. When applied to academic contexts, critical discourse analysis seems to play an undeniable role in the development of reflective thoughts by students. The current study investigated the effect of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) on English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learner’s critical thinking (CT) ability in economic translation texts classes. To this end, 60 undergraduate English translation students at the intermediate level of proficiency were selected and assigned into two groups of experimental and control. The experimental group received instruction in order to make critical analysis both on articles handed out by teacher as well as follow-up CDA based presentations. The control group learners, on the other hand, received neither instruction nor any practice with respect to critical discourse analysis of texts. The data obtained from the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal were subject to independent samples t-test. The findings revealed that CDA had a positive and significant impact on EFL learners’ critical thinking ability with the ‘Interpretation’ and ‘Recognizing Unstated Assumption’ sub-tests of critical thinking being most influenced. The significance of this finding in light of critical discourse analysis and implications for educationalists are discussed in detail.

Keywords

Article Title [Persian]

نقش تجزیه و تحلیل گفتمان انتقادی (CDA) در توانایی تفکر انتقادی یادگیرنده زبان انگلیسی به عنوان زبان خارجی در کلاسهای ترجمه متون اقتصادی

Authors [Persian]

  • شبنم کوروش خانشان 1
  • داوود کوهی 2

Abstract [Persian]

معلمان ترجیح می دهند که فراگیران ایشان تمام اطلاعات ارائه شده را نادیده نگیرند؛ در عوض، آنها امیدوارند که زبان آموزان خود را قادر به توسعه مهارت های تفکر انتقادی کنند. تجزیه و تحلیل گفتمان انتقادی هنگامی در زمینه های علمی اعمال می شود، به نظر می رسد نقش غیر قابل انکاری در توسعه افکار بازتابی و انتقادی در دانش آموزان ایفا کند. در این پژوهش، اثر تجزیه و تحلیل گفتمان انتقادی (CDA) به توانایی تفکر انتقادی یادگیرنده زبان انگلیسی به عنوان زبان خارجی  در کلاسهای ترجمه متون اقتصادی بررسی شده است. برای این منظور، 60 دانشجوی کارشناسی زبان انگلیسی در سطح مهارتی متوسط، انتخاب شدند و به دو گروه آزمایشی و کنترل تقسیم شدند. گروه آزمایشی به منظور تجزیه و تحلیل گفتمان انتقادی در مورد مقالات ارائه شده توسط معلم و نیز پیشنهادهای مبتنی بر CDA، دستورالعمل دریافت کردند در صورتی که گروه کنترل هیچ آموزش یا تمرینی در رابطه با تحلیل انتقادی متون در کلاس دریافت نکرد. داده های به دست آمده از ارزیابی تفکر انتقادی واتسون گلاسر تحت آزمایش مستقل تی تست قرار گرفتند. یافته ها نشان داد که CDA تأثیر مثبت و معناداری بر توانایی تفکر انتقادی یادگیرندگان EFL داشت که تحت تأثیرات تفسیری و تشخیص فرضیه های نامعین قرار دارند. اهمیت این یافته با توجه به تجزیه و تحلیل گفتمان انتقادی و پیامدهای آن برای کارشناسان آموزشی به تفصیل بحث شده است.

Keywords [Persian]

  • : تفکر انتقادی
  • تحلیل گفتمان انتقادی
  • ترجمه
  • متون اقتصادی
  • زبان آموزان انگلیسی به عنوان زبان خارجی

Apple, W. M. (2004). Ideology and curriculum. New York & London: Routledge Falmer.

Baker, P., Gabrielatos, C., Khosravinik, M., Krzyżanowski, M., McEnery, T., & Wodak, R. (2008). A useful methodological synergy? Combining critical discourse analysis and corpus linguistics to examine discourses of refugees and asylum seekers in the UK press. Discourse & Society, 19(3), 273-306.

Bakhtin, M. (1981). The dialogical imagination. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Brookfield, S. (1987). Developing critical thinking. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.

Cope, B., & Kalantzis, M. (2000). Multiliteracies: Literacy learning and the design of social futures. London; New York: Routledge.

Dantas-Whitney, M. (2002). Critical reflection in the second language classroom through audio taped journals. System, 30(4), 543-555.

Davidson, B. (1998). A case for critical thinking in the English language classroom. TESOL Quarterly, 32(1), 119-123.

Davidson, B., & Dunham, R. (1997). Assessing EFL student progress in critical thinking with the Ennis-Weir critical thinking essay test. JALT Journal, 19(1), 43-57.

Dewey, J. (1933). How we think: A restatement of the relation of reflective thinking to the educational process. Boston, MA D.C.: Heath & Co Publishers

Facione, P.A., Giancarlo, C.A., Facione, N.C., & Gainen, J. (1995). The disposition toward critical thinking. Journal of General Education, 44(1), 1-25.

Fairclough, N. (1989). Language and power. London; New York: Longman.

Fairclough, N. (1995). Critical discourse analysis: The critical study of language. London: Longman.

Fairclough, N. (2003). Analyzing discourse: Textual analysis for social research. London, England: Routledge.

Fairclough, N., Mulderrig, J., & Wodak, R. (2011). Critical discourse analysis. In T. A. van Dijk (Ed.), Discourse studies: A multidisciplinary introduction (pp. 357-378). London: Sage.

Fairclough, N.L., & Wodak, R. (1997). Critical discourse analysis. In T.A. van Dijk, (Ed.), Discourse studies: A multidisciplinary introduction (pp. 258-284). Sage, London.

Frijters, S., Dam, G.T., & Rijlaarsdam, G. (2007). Effects of dialogic learning on value-loaded critical thinking. Learning and Instruction, 18(1), 66-82.

Fisher, A. (2001). Critical thinking: An introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Gee, J. P. (2008). Social linguistics and literacies: Ideology in discourses (3rded.). New York: Routledge.

Giancarlo, C.A., & Facione, P.A. (2001). A look across four years at the disposition toward critical thinking among undergraduate students. Journal of General Education, 50(1), 29-55.

Giroux, H. A. (2005). The terror of neoliberalism. Boulder, CO: Paradigm.

Hooks, B. (1994). Teaching to transgress: Education as the practice of freedom. New York: Routledge.

Jafari Gohar, M. (2010). Economic text translation. Tehran: Payame Nour University.

Kealey, B.T., Holland, J., & Watson, M. (2005). Preliminary evidence on the association between critical thinking and performance in principles of accounting. Issues in Accounting Education, 20(1), 33-49.

Khezrlou, S. (2012). The relationship between cognitive and metacognitive strategies, age and level of education. The Reading Matrix, 12(1), 50-61.

Lee, S.K.F., & Loughran, J. (2000). Facilitating pre-service teachers’ reflection through a school-based teaching program. Reflective Practice, 1(1), 69-89.

Maloof Avendano, C. E., & Foneseca, M. H. (2009). Use of discourse analysis to enhance students’ critical thinking skills. Revista del Instituto de Estudiosen Educaciَn Universidad del Norte.

Paul, R. (1987). Dialogical thinking e critical thought essential to the acquisition of rational knowledge and passions. In J. Baron, & R. Sternberg, (Eds.), Teaching thinking skills (pp. 127-148). Freeman, New York.

Phan, H.P. (2010). Critical thinking as a self-regulatory process component in teaching and learning. Psicothema, 22(2), 284-292.

Scriven, M., & Paul, R. (2004). Defining critical thinking. Retrieved May 2017 from: http://www.criticalthinking.org/aboutCT/definingCT. shtml.

Sleeter, C., & Grant, C. (1987). An analysis of multicultural education in the United States. Harvard Educational Review, 57, 421-444.

Wallace, C. (1992). Critical literacy awareness in the EFL classroom. In N. Fairclough (Ed.), Critical language awareness (pp. 145-148). Longman, Harlow.

Watson, G.B., & Glaser, E.M. (2002). Watson-Glaser critical thinking appraisal UK. The Psychological Corporation, London.

Wodak, R., & Meyer, M. (2001). Methods of critical discourse analysis. London: Sage.

Yeh, Y.C. (2004). Nurturing reflective teaching during critical-thinking instruction in computer simulation program. Computers and Education, 42(2), 181-194.