Introducing and Investigating a New Micro-strategy for Teaching Spelling Patterns: Active Mental Photography

Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

1 Dr. Mohammad Zohrabi Assistant Professor English Department Faculty of Farsi Literature University of Tabriz Tabriz Iran

2 English Department Faculty of Farsi Literature University of Tabriz Tabriz Iran

Abstract

Spelling has become a remarkable aspect of learning and/or teaching English as a foreign language. This skill helps learners to write fluently without interruption in the flow of thinking caused by searching dictionary for the correct spelling. However, the number of practical simple strategies to learn and/or teach spelling is scant. This study was an attempt to introduce a simple strategy to learn spelling and to investigate its effects on learners’ progress in spelling. To this end, two groups of third grade students of secondary school were studied as control and experimental groups. A pretest was given, then the new strategy was used in the experimental group, and then a posttest was given, and finally the data were analyzed by using ANCOVA. The results showed that this new strategy of learning spelling has a positive effect on learners’ spelling performance. Findings show that this simple strategy can be effective in learning and/or teaching spelling.

Keywords


Article Title [Persian]

معرفی و بررسی روشی جدید برای یادگیری و تمرین املا

Authors [Persian]

  • محمد ظهرابی 1
  • پریا کاشف 2
1 Dr. Mohammad Zohrabi Assistant Professor English Department Faculty of Farsi Literature University of Tabriz Tabriz Iran
2 English Department Faculty of Farsi Literature University of Tabriz Tabriz Iran
Abstract [Persian]

املای صحیح، یکی از موارد حائز اهمیت در یادگیرِی زبان انگلیسی به عنوان یک زبان خارجی محسوب می شود. این مهارت به زبان آموزان کمک می کند تا راحت تر و روان تر بنویسند، چرا که مراجعه به لغت نامه حین نوشتن جهت جستجوی املای صحیح کلمه ی مورد نظر موجب قطع رشته ی افکار زبان آموز می شود. با این وجود، روش های ساده و مناسب یادگیری املا به اندازه ی کافی در اختیار معلمان و زبان آموزان نیست. تحقیق حاضر تلاشی است برای معرفی یک روش ساده ی یادگیری املای کلمات انگلیسی و بررسی تاثیر آن بر عملکرد نوشتاری دانش آموزان. از این رو دو گروه از دانش آموزان پایه ی نهم متوسطه ی اول به عنوان گروه کنترل و گروه آزمایش انتخاب شدند. پس از اجرای پیش آزمون، روش جدید یادگیری املا برای گروه آزمایش معرفی و طی چندین جلسه تمرین شد. سپس، پس آزمون اجرا شد. داده های آزمون توسط اس پی اس اس و با استفاده از روش انکووا بررسی شد. نتایج بدست آمده حاکی از این بود که این روش، تاثیر مثبتی بر یادگیری املای صحیح کلمات توسط زبان آموزان دارد. از این رو، این روش می تواند در تدریس املای کلمات زبان خارجی موثر واقع شود.

Keywords [Persian]

  • ملا
  • روش یادگیری
  • اثربخشی روش یادگیری
Allwright, R. L. (1993). Integrating “research” and “pedagogy”: Appropriate criteria and practical problems. In J. Edge, & K. Richards (Eds.), Teachers develop teachers’ research (pp. 125-135). London: Heinemann.

Anderson, R. C., Hiebert, E. H., Scott, J., & Wilkinson. (1985). Becoming a nation of readers. Washington, DC: National Institute of Education.

Basner, I. (2014). Research paper on spelling strategies. SPELD NSW.

Beringer, V., Abbott, R., Rogan, L., Reed, E., Abbot, P., Brooks, A., Vaughan, K., & Graham, S. (1998). Teaching spelling to children with specific learning disabilities: The mind's ear and eye beat the computer or pencil, Arizona State University, 21(2), 106-121.

Bosman, A. M. T., & De Groot, A. M. B. (1989). Sentential priming of semantic information in good and poor young readers and in adults. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 68(2), 343-353.

Butyniec-Thomas, J., & Woloshyn, V. E. (1997). The effect of explicit strategy and whole language instruction on students aspelling ability. The Journal of Experimental Education, 65(4), 293-302.

Caravolas, M. (2004). Spelling development in alphabetic writing system: A Cross-lingual perspective. European Psychologist, 9(1), 3-14.

Caravolas, M., Hulme, C., & Snowling, M. J. (2001). The foundations of spelling ability: Evidence from a 3-year longitudinal study. Journal of memory and language45(4), 751-774.

Center, K. C. D., & Council, A. (2005). 2014 KIDS COUNT Data Book.

Cohen, A. D. M. (2007). Language learner strategies: Thirty years of research and practice (No. Sirsi) i9780194422543).

Duckworth, A., Kirby, T., Tsukayama, E., Berstein, H., & Ericsson, K.A. (2011). Deliberate practice spells success: Why Grittier competitors triumph at the national spelling bee. Social Psychology and Personality Science, 2(2), 174-181.

Dehaene, S., & Cohen, L. (2011). The unique role of the visual word form area in reading. Trends in cognitive sciences15(6), 254-262.

Ehri, L. C. (1989). The development of spelling knowledge and its role in reading acquisition and reading disability. Journal of learning disabilities22(6), 356-365.

Fischer, F. W., Shankweiler, D., & Liberman, I. Y. (1985). Spelling proficiency and sensitivity to word structure. Journal of memory and language24(4), 423-441.

Foorman, B. R., Francis, D. J., Fletcher, J. M., Schatschneider, C., & Mehta, P. (1998). The role of instruction in learning to read: Preventing reading failure in at-risk children. Journal of Educational Psychology90(1), 37.

Fresch, M. J. (2003). A national survey of spelling instruction: Investigating teachers' beliefs and practice. Journal of Literacy Research35(3), 819-848.

Frith, U. (1980). Unexpected spelling problems. Toim. U. Frith. Cognitive processes in spelling.

Gentry, R. (2003). Spelling connections 2004: Grade 8. Zaner-Bloser.

Gentry, J. R. (1982). An analysis of developmental spelling in" GNYS AT WRK". The reading teacher36(2), 192-200.

Graham, S., & Harris, K. R. (2005). Improving the writing performance of young struggling writers: Theoretical and programmatic research from the center on accelerating student learning. The journal of special education39(1), 19-33.

Henderson, E. H. (1990). Teaching spelling. Houghton Mifflin College Division.

Holmes, V. M., & Malone, N. (2004). Adult spelling strategies. Reading and Writing17(6), 537-566.

Juul, H., & Sigurdsson, B. (2005). Orthography as a handicap? A direct comparison of spelling acquisition in Danish and Icelandic. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology46(3), 263-272.

Kernaghan, K., & Woloshyn, V. E. (1995). Providing grade one students with multiple spelling strategies: Comparisons between strategy instruction, strategy instruction with metacognitive information, and traditional language arts. Applied cognitive psychology9(2), 157-166.

Lensk, S., & Verbruggen, F (2010). Writing instructions and assessments for English language learners K-8. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Leong, C. K., & Joshi, R. M. (Eds.). (1997). Cross-language studies of learning to read and spell: Phonologic and orthographic processing (Vol. 87). Springer Science & Business Media.

Liberman, I. Y., Shankweiler, D., & Liberman, A. M. (1990). The alphabetic principle and learning to read. Haskins Laboratories Status Report on Speech Research, SR-101 /102, 1-13.

O’Conner, R. E., & Padeliadu, S. (2000). Blending versus whole word approaches in first grade remedial reading. Reading and Writing13, 159-182.

Pollo, T. C., Kessler, B., & Treiman, R. (2009). Statistical patterns in children’s early writing. Journal of experimental child psychology104(4), 410-426.

Rubin, J. (1975). What the" good language learner" can teach us. TESOL quarterly, 41-51.

Rubin, J., Chamot, A. U., Harris, V., & Anderson, N. J. (2007). Intervening in the use of strategies. Language learner strategies30, 29-45.

Steffler, D. J., Varnhagen, C. K., Friesen, C. K., & Treiman, R. (1998). There's more to children's spelling than the errors they make: Strategic and automatic processes for one-syllable words. Journal of Educational Psychology90(3), 492.

Templeton, S. (1986). Synthesis of research on the learning and teaching of spelling. Educational Leadership43(6), 73-78.

Templeton, S. (1991). Teaching and learning the English spelling system: Reconceptualizing method and purpose. The Elementary School Journal92(2), 185-201.

Templeton, S. (1991). Teaching the Integrated Language Arts. Houghton Mifflin Company, Order Dept., Wayside Rd., Burlington, MA 01803.

Templeton, S., & Morris, D. (1999). Questions teachers ask about spelling. Reading Research Quarterly34(1), 102-112.

Treiman, R., Kessler, B., Pollo, T. C., Byrne, B., & Olson, R. K. (2016). Measures of kindergarten spelling and their relations to later spelling performance. Scientific Studies of Reading20(5), 349-362.

Treiman, R., & Bourassa, D. C. (2000). The development of spelling skill. Topics in language disorders20(3), 1-18.

Van Daal, V. H., & Reitsma, P. (1993). The use of speech feedback by normal and disabled readers in computer-based reading practice. Reading and Writing5(3), 243-259.

Ziegler, J. C., & Goswami, U. (2006). Becoming literate in different languages: similar problems, different solutions. Developmental science9(5), 429-436.

Port, R. (2007). How are words stored in memory? Beyond phones and phonemes. New Ideas in Psychology 25, 143-170