1 Ph.D Candidate, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran


Teacher education programs are ought to deal with the issue of language proficiency. Moreover, finding appropriate framework to help prospective teachers with different learning styles to transform the acquired knowledge and skills into actual teaching practice is highly promising. Task Based Instruction (TBI) might pave the way for such transformative learning. This study attempted to testify this hypothesis. To this end, among 105 available EFL teacher trainees, who were instructed through the TBI, 76 trainees in four experiential learning styles (n = 19), were selected for further analysis. There was no control group in this study. The trainees were first selected through convenience sampling; they were then administered to experiential learning style inventory. Through a mixed-method design, the TBI and experiential learning style effects on trainees’ reading skills and transformation of the acquired skills were examined. A wide range of qualitative and quantitative instruments were implemented in this study. The results of the questionnaires, tests and observation checklist were analyzed quantitatively. For interview results, both quantitative (percentages) and qualitative analysis were employed. The results demonstrated that the TBI had a significant effect on trainees’ reading skills; the transformation was also observed. However, no significant effect of experiential learning styles was observed. At the end, some recommendations are provided.

Article Title [Persian]

تاثیر آموزش فعالیت-محور بر ارتقاء مهارت خواندن دانشجویان دبیری زبان انگلیسی با سبک های یادگیری تجربی متفاوت

Authors [Persian]

  • امین خانجانی 1
  • فریدون وحدانی 2
  • منصور جعفری گوهر 3

Abstract [Persian]

دوره های تربیت دبیرزبان انگلیسی بایستی به مقوله دانش زبانی دانشجو-معلمان توجه ویژه داشته باشند. همچنین پیدا کردن یک قالب مناسب برای کمک به این دانشجو-معلمان با سبک های یادگیری متفاوت از اهمیت فوق العاده ای برخوردار است چرا که میتواند به انتقال و بکارگیری دانش و مهارت های کسب شده در تدریس آینده آنها بیانجامد. آموزش کار-محور از جمله این الگوهای آموزشی است. پژوهش حاضر برای آزمودن این موضوع انجام گرفت. بدین منظور، از میان 105 دانشجوی تربیت دبیر زبان انگلیسی، 76 نفر به چهار گروه 19 نفره با سبکهای یادگیری تجربی متفاوت تقسیم بندی شدند و تحت آموزش کار-محور قرار گرفتند. با استفاده از روش ترکیبی، اثر سبک یادگیری تجربی و آموزش کار-محور بر ارتقا مهارت خواندن دانشجو-معلمان و همچنین انتقال و بکارگیری این دانش در تدریس آینده آنها مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. نتایج پرسشنامه، آزمودنی و چک لیست مشاهده به صورت کمی و نتایج مصاحبه نیمه-سازمان یافته هم به صورت کمی و هم به صورت کیفی مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که آموزش کار-محور تاثیر معنا داری روی مهارت خواندن دانشجو-معلمان و همجنین انتقال این دانش و مهارت در تدریس آنها داشت اما سبک یادگیری تجربی فاقد چنین تاثیر معنا دار بود.

Keywords [Persian]

  • آموزش کار-محور
  • دوره تربیت دبیر
  • زبان انگلیسی
  • سبک یادگیری تجربی
  • خواندن

Anani Sarab, M., & Karimi, M. (2008). The impact of simplified and interactionally modified input on reading comprehension of Iranian EFL learners. Human Sciences, 56, 29–42.

Baily, S., Stribling, S. M., & McGowan, C.L. (2014). Experiencing the growing edge: Transformative teacher education to foster social justice perspectives. Journal of Transformative Education, 12(3), 248–265.

Bergsteiner, H., Avery, G. C., & Neumann, R. (2010). Kolb's experiential learning model: Critique from a modeling perspective. Studies in Continuing Education, 2(1), 2946.

Berman, P., & McLaughlin, M.W. (1976). Implementation of educational innovation, The    Educational Forum, 40(3), 345–370, DOI: 10.1080/00131727609336469.

Bernaus, M., & Gardner, R. (2008). Teacher motivation strategies, student perceptions, student   motivation, and English achievement. The Modern Language Journal, 92(1), 387–401.

Butler, Y. G. (2004). What level of proficiency do elementary school teachers need to attain to teach EFL? Case studies from Korean, Taiwan, and Japan. TESOL Quarterly, 38(2), 245–278.

Carless, D. (2002). Implementing task-based learning with young learners. ELT Journal, 56(4), 389–396.

Chalak, A. (2015). The effect of task-based instruction on reading comprehension of Iranian EFL learners. Applied Research on English Language, 4(1), 19–29.

Chen, A., & Ennis, C. D. (1995). Content knowledge transformation: An Examination of the    relationship between content knowledge and curricula. Teaching and Teacher Education, 11, 389–401.

Chien, CH.W. (2014). Integration of task-based approaches in a TESOL course. English Language teaching. 7(9), 36–48.

Creswell, J. W. (2003). Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Darling-Hammond, L., & Youngs, P. (2002). Defining highly qualified teachers: What does    scientifically-based research actually tell us? Education Researcher, 31(9), 13–25.

Dörnyei, Z. (2005). The psychology of the language learner. Mahwah, NJ: Routledge.

Dyson, M. (2010). What might a person-centred model of teacher education look like in the 21st century? The transformism model of teacher education. Journal of Transformative Education, 8(1) 3–21.

Ellis, R. (2003). Task-based language learning and teaching. New York: Oxford University Press.

Ellis, R. (2009). Task-based language teaching: Sorting out the misunderstandings. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 19 (3), 221–246.

Freeman, D. (1989). Teacher training, development and decision making: A model teaching and related strategies for language teacher education. TESOL Quarterly, 23(1), 28–46.

Freeman, D., & Johnson, K. E. (1998). Reconceptualizing the knowledge-base of language    teacher education. TESOL Quarterly, 32(3), 397–418.

Gass, S.M. (1997). Input, interaction, and the second language learner. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Elrbaum.

Hall, G. (2011). Exploring English language teaching. Routledge: New York

Hyland, K. (1993). Culture and learning: A study of the learning style preferences of Japanese students. RELC Journal, 24(2), 69–91.

Jackson, D. O. (2012). Task-based language teacher education in an undergraduate program in Japan. In A. Shehadeh, & C. A. Coombe (Eds), Task-based language teaching in foreign language contexts: Research and implementation (pp. 267–286). Amsterdam, the Netherlands: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Jafarigohar, M. & Khanjani, A. (2015). Effects of task-based academic listening on high school EFL students' listening comprehension: Does experiential learning style matter? Journal of Teaching Language Skills, 6(4), 67–94.

Jeon, I. & Hahn, J. (2006). Exploring EFL teachers’ perceptions of task-based language teaching: a case study of Korean secondary school classroom practice. Asian EFL Journal, 8(1), 1–27.

Johnson, R. B., Onwuegbuzie, A. J., & Turner, L. A. (2007). Toward a definition of mixed methods research. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1, 112–133. 

Kamhi-Stein, L. D. (2009). Teacher preparation and nonnative English-speaking educators. In A. Burns, & J. C. Richards (Eds.), The Cambridge guide to second language teacher education (pp. 91–101). Cambridge: Cambridge University.

Kayes, D. C. (2005). Internal validity and reliability of Kolb’s learning style inventory version 3 (1999). Journal of Business and Psychology, 20(2), 249257.

Keyvanfar, J., & Modarresi, M. (2009). The impact of task-based activities on the reading skill of Iranian EFL young learners at the beginner level. The Journal of Applied Linguistics, 2(1), 81-102.

Klinger, J., & Vaughn, S. (1999). Promoting reading comprehension, content learning, and    English acquisition though collaborative strategic reading (CSR). The Reading Teacher, 52(7), 738–748.

Koda, K. (2005). Insights into second language reading: A cross linguistic approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kolb, A. Y., & Kolb, D.A. (2005). The Kolb learning style inventory-Version 3.1 2005 technical specifications. Experience Based Learning Systems, Inc. Case Western Reserve University.

Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. New Jersey: Prentice- Hall.

Kratzig, G., & Arbuthnott, K. (2006). Perceptual learning style and learning proficiency: A test of the hypothesis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(1), 238–246.

Kumaravadivelu, B. (2001). Toward a post method pedagogy. TESOL Quarterly, 35(4), 537–560.

Lamb, M. (2004). It depends on the students themselves: Independent language learning at an Indonesian state school. Language, Culture, and Curriculum, 17, 229–245.

Lantolf, J., & Thorne, S. (2006). Sociocultural theory and the genesis of second language development. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Leather, S., & Popovic, R. (2008). Time for reflection. English Teaching Professional, 55, 1–3.

Li, J., & Qin, X. (2006). Language learning styles and learning strategies of tertiary-level English learners in China. Regional Language Center Journal, 37, 367–390.

Littlewood, B. (2016). Task-based learning in language teacher education. English Language Teacher Education and Development, 19, 9–13.

Liu, F., Hu, L., & Gan, J. (2013). A study on the learning style preferences with different academic Backgrounds—Taking Tujia EFL learners as examples. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 3(1), 100–107.

Lodge, J.M., Hansen, L., & Cottrell, D. (2015): Modality preference and learning style theories: rethinking the role of sensory modality in learning. Learning: Research and Practice, 1–15. DOI: 10.1080/23735082.2015.1083115

Long, M. (1985) A role for instruction in second language acquisition: task-based language teaching. In K. Hyltenstam, & M. Pienemann (eds.), Modelling and assessing second language acquisition (pp. 77–99). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

McDonough, K., & Chaikitmongkol, W. (2007). Teachers’ and learners’ reactions to a task-based EFL course in Thailand. TESOL Quarterly, 41(1), 107–132.

Manolis, C., Burns, D. J., Assudani, R., & Chinta, R. (2013). Assessing experiential learning styles: A methodological reconstruction and validation of the Kolb Learning Style Inventory. Learning and Individual Differences, 23, 44–52.

Moser, J., Harris, J., & Carle, J. (2012). Improving teacher talk through task-based approach. ELT Journal, 66(1), 81–88.

Naimat, G. K. (2011). Influence of teacher-students interaction on EFL reading comprehension. European Journal of Social Sciences, 23(4), 672–687.

Nassaji, H., & Cumming, A. (2000). What’s in a ZPD? A case study of a young ESL student and teacher interacting through dialogue journals. Language Teaching Research, 4, 95–121.

Neuhauser, C. (2002). Learning style and effectiveness of online and face-to-face instruction. American Journal of Distance Education, 16(2), 99-113, DOI: 10.1207/S15389286AJDE1602_4

Norris, J. M. (2009). Task-based teaching and testing. In M. H. Long, & C. J. Doughty (Eds.), The handbook of language teaching (pp. 578594). Cambridge: Wiley-Blackwell.

Nunan, D. (2004). Task-based language teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ogilvie, G., & Dunn, W. (2010). Taking teacher education to task: Exploring the role of teacher   education in promoting the utilization of task-based language teaching. Language Teaching Research, 14(2), 161–181.

Oxford, R., & Lee, K. (2008). The learners’ landscape and journey: A summary. In C. Griffiths (Ed.), Lessons from good language learners (pp. 306–317). Cambridge: CUP.

Oxford, R., & Shearin, J. (1994). Language learning motivation: Expanding the theoretical framework. The Modern Language Journal, 78, 12-28.

Psaltou-Joycey, A., & Kantaridou, Z. (2011). Major, minor, and negative learning style preferences of university students. System, 39, 103-112.

Poorahmadi, M. (2012). Investigating the efficiency of task-based instruction in improving reading comprehension ability. Journal of Language and Translation, 3(1), 29–36.

Robinson, P. (2011). Task-based language learning: A review of issues. Language Learning, 61, 136.

Samuda, V., & Bygate, M. (2008). Tasks in second language learning. New York: Palgrave Mcmillan.

Shulman, L. S. (1987). Knowledge and teaching: Foundations of the new reform. Harvard Educational Review, 57(1), 1–22.

Skehan, P. (1996). A framework for the implementation of task based Instruction. Applied Linguistics, 17(1), 3862.

Skehan, P. (2003). Task-based instruction. Language Teaching, 36, 114.

Tabatabaei, O., & Mashayekhi, S. (2013). The relationship between EFL learners’ learning styles and their L2 achievement. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 70, 245–253.

Tillman, W. R., & Tillman, C.J. (2008). A study of job satisfaction among teachers. Academy of Educational Leadership Journal, 12(3),1–18.

Valli, L., & Rennert-Ariev, P. (2002). New standards and assessment? Curriculum transformation in teacher education. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 34(2), 201–225.

Vaughn, S., & Edmonds, M. (2006). Reading comprehension for older readers. Intervention in School and Clinic, 41(3), 131–137.

Wang, V., & Sarbo, L. (2004). Philosophy, role of teacher educators, and learning: How    conceptually adapted philosophies and the situational role of adult educators affect learners. Journal of Transformative Education, 2, 204–214.

Willis, D., & Willis, J. (2007). Doing task-based teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Xu, Y., Gelfer, J. & Perkins, P. (2005). Using peer tutoring to increase social interactions in early schooling. TESOL Quarterly, 39(1), 83–107.