Authors

1 Associate Professor of Applied Linguistics, Shahrekord University

2 MA in Applied Linguistics, Shahrekord University

Abstract

Differences in nonnative speakers’ pragmatic performance may lead to serious communication problems. Although previous research has investigated different types of request strategies employed by English as a foreign or second language (EFL/ESL) learners, little is known whether they use different or similar types of request strategies in the faculty context. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate cross-cultural variation in the use of request strategies by EFL/ESL learners to their faculty. To this aim, the request strategies elicited from 38 intermediate Iranian EFL learners in Iran, 24 intermediate ESL learners in England, and 16 British native English-speaking teachers were examined. A discourse completion test (DCT) was used to elicit the EFL/ESL learners’ request strategies to the faculty. Frequency findings suggested preference for the use of conventionally indirect request strategies to their faculty by the participants. Moreover, chi-square results indicated that their first language (L1) had no effect on the choice of request strategies employed by such learners to their faculty. Conclusions are that EFL/ESL learners generally use more negative politeness strategies to mitigate their requests to their faculty.

Keywords

Article Title [Persian]

بررسی بین فرهنگی راهکارهای درخواست زبان آموزان انگلیسی به عنوان یک زبان خارجی/دوم

Authors [Persian]

  • محمود هاشمیان 1
  • مریم فرهنگ جو 2

Abstract [Persian]

تفاوت درعملکرد منظورشناختی زبان‍آموزان غیربومی ممکن است به مشکلات ارتباطی جدی منجر شود. اگرچه پژوهش‍های گذشته انواع مختلف استراتژی‍های درخواست استفاده شده توسط زبان آموزان انگلیسی به عنوان یک زبان خارجی/دوم را بررسی کرده است، کاملا مشخص نیست که آیا آن‍ها از استراتژی‍های درخواست مختلف یا مشابه‌ای درموقعیت‍های دانشگاهی استفاده می ‍کنند. این پژوهش تفاوت بین فرهنگی استراتژی‍های درخواست زبان آموزان انگلیسی به عنوان یک زبان خارجی/دوم به استاد را بررسی کرد. به این منظور، استراتژی‌های درخواست‍ 38 زبان آموز سطح متوسط انگلیسی به عنوان یک زبان خارجی در ایران، 24 زبان آموز سطح متوسط  انگلیسی به عنوان یک زبان دوم در انگاستان و 16 معلم انگلیسی زبان بومی بررسی شدند. یک آزمون تکمیل گفتمان برای جمع آوری استراتژی های درخواست به استاد استفاده شد. یافته های فراوانی نشانگر این بود که بیشتر شرکت کنندگان تمایل داشتند که از استراتژی نوع غیرمسقیم استفاده کنند. نتایج مجذور کای نشانگر این بود که زبان اول تاثیری بر انتخاب استراتژی های درخواست این زبان آموزان نداشت. نتایج حاکی از آن است که زبان آموزان انگلیسی به عنوان یک زبان خارجی/دوم به طور کلی از استراتژی‍های ادب منفی برای درخواست‍های خود به استاد استفاده می کنند.

Keywords [Persian]

  • استراتژی درخواست
  • زبان آموزان انگلیسی به عنوان یک زبان خارجی/دوم
  • ادب

Atashaneh, N., & Izadi, A. (2011). Refusals in English and Persian: A pragmalinguistic investigation. Iranian EFL Journal, 7(2), 111-119.

Barron, A. (2003). Acquisition in interlanguage pragmatics: Learning how to do things with words in a study abroad context. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing.

Bella, S. (2011). Mitigation and politeness in Greek invitation refusals: Effects of length of residence in the target community and intensity of interaction on nonnative speakers’ performance. Journal of Pragmatics, 43, 1718-1740.

Birjandi, P., & Rezaie, S. (2010). Developing a multiple-choice discourse completion test of interlanguage pragmatics for Iranian EFL learners. ILI Language Teaching Journal, 6(1), 43-58.

Blum-Kulka, S., House, J., & Kasper, G. (1989). The CCSARP coding manual. In S. Blum-Kulka, J. House, & G.  Kasper (Eds.), Cross-cultural pragmatics: Requests and apologies (pp. 273-294). Norwood: Albex.

Blum-Kulka, S., & Olshtain, E. (1984). Requests and apologies: A cross-cultural study of speech act realization patterns (CCSARP). Applied Linguistics, 5(3), 196-213.

Brown, P., & Levinson, S. (1987). Universals in language usage: Politeness phenomena. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Byon, A. S. (2004). Sociopragmatic analysis of Korean requests: Pedagogical settings. Journal of Pragmatics, 36, 1673-1704.

Chen, S. C., & Chen, S. H. E. (2007). Interlanguage requests: A cross-cultural study of English and Chinese. The Linguistics Journal, 2(2), 33-52.

Eslami-Rasekh, Z. (2005). Raising the pragmatic awareness of language learners. ELT Journal, 59(2), 199-208.

Eslami-Rasekh, Z. (2010). Refusals: How to develop appropriate refusal strategies. In A. Martinez-Flor, & E. Uso-Juan (Eds.), Speech act performance (pp. 217-236). Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Farahian, M., Rezaee, M., & Gholami, A. (2012). Does direct instruction develop pragmatic competence? Teaching refusals to EFL learners of English. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 3(4), 814-821.

Foster, S. H. (2014). The communicative competence of young children: A modular approach. UK: Routledge.

Fraser, B. (2010). Pragmatic competence: The case of hedging. In G. Kaltenböck, W. Mihatsch, & S. Schneider (Eds.), New approaches to hedging (pp. 15-34). London: Emerald.

Goffman, E. (1967). Interactional rituals: Essays on face-to-face behavior. New York: Anchor Books.

Hashemian, M. (2014). A pragmatic study of requestive speech act by Iranian EFL learners and Canadian native speakers in hotels. The Journal of Teaching Language Skills, 6(2), 55-80.

Hassall, T. (2003). Requests by Australian learners of Indonesian. Journal of Pragmatics, 35, 1903-1928.

Hassani, R., Mardani, M., & Hossein, H. (2011). A Comparative study of refusals: Gender distinction and social status in focus. The International Journal Language Society and Culture, 32, 37-46.

Hickey, L. (1991). Comparatively polite people in Spain and Britain. Association for Comparative Iberian Studies, 4, 2-7.

Hickey, L. (2005). Politeness in Spain: Thanks but no “thanks.” In L. Hickey, & M. Stewart (Eds.), Politeness in Europe (pp. 317-330). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Holmes, J. (2013). Women, men, and politeness. UK: Routledge.

Hymes, D. (1971). On communicative competence. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Jalilifar, A. (2009). Request strategies: Cross-sectional study of Iranian EFL learners and Australian native speakers. ELT Journal, 2(1), 46-61.

Kasper, G., & Rose, K. (2002). Pragmatic development in a second language. Malden:Blackwell

Leech, G. (2016). Principles of pragmatics. London: Longman.

Levinson, S. C. (1983). Pragmatics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lin, Y. H. (2009). Query preparatory modals: Cross-linguistic and cross-situational variations in request modification. Journal of Pragmatics, 41(8), 1636-1656.

Marquez Reiter, R., Rainey, I., & Fulcher, G. (2005). A comparative study of certainty and conventional indirectness: Evidence from British English and Peninsular Spanish. Applied Linguistics, 26(1), 1-31.

Nelson, G. L., Carson, J., Al Batal, M., & El Bakary, W. (2002). Cross-cultural pragmatics: Strategy use in Egyptian Arabic and American English refusals. Applied Linguistics, 23(2), 163-89.

Rahimi, A., & Askari Bigdeli, R. (2014). Iranian EFL learners at loggerheads with perceived social support. Iranian Journal of Research in English Language Teaching, 1(3), 31-38.

Reinbold, L. J. (2004). Japanese EFL learners’ levels of directness in making requests. In K. Bradford-Watts, C. Ikeguchi, & M. Swanson (Eds.), JALT conference proceedings (pp. 164-173). Tokyo: JALT.

Reiter, R. M. (2000). Linguistic politeness in Britain and Uruguay: Contrastive study of requests and apologies. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Sachaure, G. A. (2009). Interlanguage pragmatic development. London: Continuum International Publishing Group.

Scollon, R., & Scollon, S. W. (2001). Intercultural communication: A discourse approach. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.

Searle, J. R. (1979). The classification of illocutionary acts. Language in Society, 8,137-151.

Shahidi Tabar, M. (2012). Cross-cultural speech act realization: The case of requests in the Persian and Turkish speech of Iranian speakers. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3(13), 237-243.

Sifianou, M. (1999). Politeness phenomena in England and Greece: A cross-cultural perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Sun, X., & Zhang, D. (2008). American college students’ requesting competence in Chinese as a foreign language. Journal of World Chinese Teaching, 3, 105-113.

Trosborg, A. (1995). Interlanguage pragmatics: Requests, complaints, and apologies. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Ueda, M. (2006). A corpus-based study of Japanese EFL learners’ request strategies. Journal of Language Studies, 10,281-300.

Uso-Juan, E., & Martinez-Flor, A. (2008). Teaching learners to appropriately mitigate requests. ELT Journal, 62(4), 349-357.

Vaezi, R. (2011). A contrastive study of the speech act of refusal between Iranian EFL learners and Persian native speakers. Cross-Cultural Communication, 7(2), 213-218.

White, R. (1993). Saying please: Pragmalinguistic failure in English interaction. ELT Journal, 47(3), 193-202.

Wierzbicka, A. (1985). Different cultures, different languages, different speech acts: Polish vs. English. Journal of Pragmatics, 9, 145-178.

Yamanaka, J. E. (2003). Effects of proficiency and length of residence on the pragmatic comprehension of Japanese ESL learners. Second Language Studies, 22(1), 107-175.

Yu, M. C. (2003). On the universality of face: Evidence from Chinese compliment response behavior. Journal of Pragmatics, 35(10), 1679-1710.