The Effect of Code-Switching on Iranian Elementary EFL Learners’ Oral Fluency, Accuracy, and Willingness to Communicate

Authors

Department of English Language, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran

Abstract

Regarding the issue of whether or not the use of L2 learners’ mother tongue should be allowed in the classroom, there has been a discord among scholars, each giving reasons for their claim. Considering this lack of consensus, this study was an attempt to investigate the effect of code-switching (CS) on Iranian elementary English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners’ oral fluency, accuracy, and willingness to communicate (WTC). To carry out this study, a sample of 60 high-elementary level EFL learners was chosen to take part. After a Key English Test (KET) was administered to ensure homogeneity of the learners, they were divided into two groups of experimental and control. The study used a quasi-experimental design. The instruments used to obtain the needed data were a WTC questionnaire providing quantifiable data on learners’ WTC both inside and outside the classroom, and the speaking section of a KET as pre-test and post-test to see whether the learners’ oral fluency and accuracy changed significantly over the course of the treatment. The results of a Multivariate Analysis of Covariance (MANCOVA) statistical analysis revealed positive effect of CS on the participants’ WTC and oral accuracy and fluency. The results of the present study can contribute to the field of English Language Teaching (ELT) and be of use for practitioners and material developers.
 

Keywords


Article Title [Persian]

تاثیر رمزگردانی بر روی فصاحت و دقت کلام و علاقه به ارتباط برقرار کردن در زبان آموزان ایرانی سطح مبتدی

Authors [Persian]

  • سعید نوربر
  • هما جعفر پور
گروه زبان انگلیسی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد قزوین
Abstract [Persian]

 پژوهشگران مختلف نظرات متفاوتی در باره ی مجاز بودن استفاده از زبان مادری زبان آموزان زبان دوم در کلاس دارند. نظر به این که بر سر این موضوع، اتفاق نظر وجود ندارد، پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی تاثیر رمزگردانی بر روی فصاحت و دقت کلام و علاقه به ارتباط برقرار کردن در زبان آموزان ایرانی سطح مبتدی به انجام رسید. برای این منظور، یک نمونه ی 60 نفری از زبان آموزان سطح فوق مبتدی انتخاب شدند و پس از شرکت در یک آزمون KET که با هدف تضمین همگن بودن سطح زبانی آنان برگزار شد، به دو گروه آزمایشی و کنترل تقسیم شدند. طرح پژوهشی موردنظر این تحقیق، یک طرح نیمه تجربی است و داده های مورد نیاز از طریق پرسشنامه ی WTC برای بررسی علاقه به ارتباط برقرار کردن در داخل و خارج از کلاس جمع آوری شد. همچنین، بخش گفتاری یک آزمون KET به عنوان پیش آزمون و پس آزمون استفاده شد تا بتوان از آن طریق، دقت و فصاحت کلام زبان آموزان سنجیده شود. نتایج روش آماری منکوا (MANCOVA) نشان داد که رمز گردانی تاثیر مثبتی بر روی علاقه به ارتباط برقرار کردن و دقت و فصاحت کلام زبان آموزان داشت. نتایج این پژوهش می تواند در زمینه ی آموزش زبان انگلیسی (ELT) و همچنین فعالان در زمینه ی تهیه منابع درسی مور استفاده قرار گیرد.
 

Keywords [Persian]

  • رمزگردانی
  • علاقه به ارتباط برقرار کردن
  • فصاحت کلام
  • دقت کلام
Adendorff, R. D. (1996). The functions of code switching among high school teachers and students in KwaZulu and implications for teacher education. In K. Bailey & D. Nunan (eds.), Voices from the classroom: Qualitative research in second language learning (pp. 388-406). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

AL-Nofaie, H. (2010). The attitudes of teachers and students towards using Arabic in EFL classrooms in Saudi public schools - a case study. Novitas-ROYAL (Research on Youth and Language), 4(1), 64-95.

Andrade, M., & Williams, K. (2009). Foreign language learning anxiety in Japanese EFL university classes: Physical, emotional, expressive, and verbal reactions. Sophia Junior College Faculty Journal, 29, 1-24.

Antón, M., & DiCamilla, F. (1998). Socio-cognitive functions of L1 collaborative interaction in the L2 classroom. Canadian Modern Language Review, 54(3), 314-342.

Anyadubalu, C. C. (2010). Self-efficacy, anxiety, and performance in the English language among middle-school students in English language program in Satri Si Suriyothai School, Bangkok. International Journal of Human and Social Sciences, 5(3), 193-198.

Auer, P. (1998). Code-switching in Conversation: Language, Interaction, and Identity. London: Routledge.

Bergsleithner, J. M. (2002). Grammar and interaction in the EFL classroom: A sociocultural study. (MA Thesis, Federal University of Santa Catarina Public, Florianópolis, Brazil). Abstract retrieved from: http://ufsc.br/Grammar+and+interaction+in+the+EFL+classroom+A+sociocultural+study

Blom, J. P., Gumperz, J. J. (1972). Social Meaning in Linguistic Structures: Code Switching in Northern Norway. In J. J. Gumperz and D. Hymes, (Eds.). Directions in Sociolinguistics. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.

Braga, M. D. C. D. O. (2000). Humour in the EFL classroom: a socio-interactionist perspective (MA Thesis, Federal University of Santa Catarina Public, Florianópolis, Brazil). Abstract retrieved from: http://ufsc.br/Humour+in+the+EFL+classroom+a+socio-interactionist+perspective.pdf

Brown, H. D. (2007). Principles of language learning and teaching. NY: Pearson Education.

Cipriani, F. D. F. (2001). Oral participation strategies in the foreign language classroom: An ethnographic account. (MA Thesis, Federal University of Santa Catarina Public, Florianópolis, Brazil). Abstract retrieved from: http://ufsc.br/Oral+participation+strategies+in+the+foreign+language+classroom+An+ethnographic+account.pdf

Clément, R., Baker, S. C., & MacIntyre, P. D, (2003). Willingness to communicate in a second language: The effect of context, norms, and vitality. Journal of Language and Social Psychology; 22(2), 190-209.

Clément, R., Dörnyei, Z., & Noels, K. A. (1994). Motivation, self-confidence, and group cohesion in the foreign language classroom. Language learning, 44, 417-428.

Cook, V. (2008). Multi-competence: Black hole or wormhole for second language acquisition research. In Z. Han (ed.) Understanding second language process (pp. 16-26). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Cook, V. (2013). Second Language Learning and Language Teaching (4th ed.). Hachette Livre, UK: Hodder Education.

De Saint Léger, D., & Storch, N. (2009). Learners’ perceptions and attitudes: Implications for willingness to communicate in an L2 classroom. System, 37, 269-285.

Deci, E. (1995). Why we do what we do, understanding self-motivation. New York, NY: Penguin.

Dörnyei, Z. (2005). The psychology of the language learner: Individual differences in second language acquisition. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Dweck, C. (2006). Mindset. The new psychology of success. New York: Ballantine.

Eldridge, J. (1996). Code-switching in a Turkish secondary school. ELT journal, 50(4), 303-311.

Ellis, R. (2008). The Study of Second Language Acquisition. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Esfahani, F. R., & Kiyoumarsi, F. (2010). The Effect of Code Switching on Learning ESP Contexts in Iranian EFL Learners. International Journal of Learning, 17(7), 107-114.

Flyman-Mattson, A. & Burenhult, N. (1999). Code switching in second language teaching of French. Retrieved on June 20, 2015, from the World Wide Web: http://www. google.com/search?q=cache:GbFBmAtk8TAJ:www.ling.lu.se/disseminations/pdf/47/Flyman_Burenhult. pdf+classroom+discourse+in+bilingual+context&hl=en

Freed, B. (2000). Is fluency, like beauty, in the eyes (and ears) of the beholder? In H. Riggenbach (ed.), Perspectives on Fluency (pp. 243-265). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Gardner-Chloros, P. (2009). Code-switching. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Gumperz, J. J. (1982). Language and social identity. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Hancock, M., & McDonald, A. (2008). English Result. UK: Oxford University Press.

Hashimoto, Y. (2002). Motivation and willingness to communicate as predictors of reported L2 use: The Japanese ESL context. Second Language Studies, 20(2), 29-70.

Hoffmann, C. (2014). An introduction to bilingualism. London: Routledge.

Horwitz, E. K., Horwitz, M. B., & Cope, J. A. (1986). Foreign language classroom anxiety. The Modern Language Journal, 70(2), 125-132.

Kang, S. J. (2005). Dynamic emergence of situational willingness to communicate in a second language. System, 33(2), 277-292.

Kitano, K. (2001). Anxiety in the college Japanese language classroom. The Modern Language Journal, 85, 549-566.

Levine, G. S. (2003). Student and instructor beliefs and attitudes about target language use, first language use, and anxiety: Report of a questionnaire study. The Modern Language Journal, 87(3), 343-364.

Lewis, M. P., Simons, G. F., & Fennig, C. D. (Eds.). (2014). Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Eighteenth edition. Dallas, TX: SIL International.

Liebscher, G., & Dailey–O'cain, J. (2005). Learner code‐switching in the content‐based foreign language classroom. The Modern Language Journal, 89(2), 234-247.

Lightbown, P. M., & Spada, N. (1999). How Languages are Learned (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Lockley, T. (2013). Exploring self-perceived communication competence in foreign language learning. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 3(2), 187-212.

Macaro, E. (2001). Analysing student teachers’ code-switching in foreign language classrooms: Theories and decision making. The Modern Language Journal, 85(4), 531-548.

MacIntyre, P. D. & Charos, C. (1996). Personality, attitudes, and affect as predictors of second language communication. Journal of language and social psychology, 15(1), 3- 26.

MacIntyre, P. D. (1994). Variables underlying willingness to communicate: A causal analysis. Communication Research Reports, 11(2), 135-142.

MacIntyre, P. D. (2007). Willingness to communicate in the second language: Understanding the decision to speak as a volitional process. The Modern Language Journal, 91(4), 564-576.

MacIntyre, P. D., Baker, S. C., Clément, R., & Conrod, S. (2001). Willingness to communicate, social support, and language-learning orientations of immersion students. Studies in second language acquisition, 23(03), 369-388.

MacIntyre, P. D., Baker, S. C., Clément, R., & Donovan, L. A. (2002). Sex and age effects on willingness to communicate, anxiety, perceived competence, and L2 motivation among junior high school French immersion students. Language learning, 52(3), 537-564.

MacIntyre, P. D., Clément, R., Dörnyei, Z., & Noels, K. A. (1998). Conceptualizing willingness to communicate in a L2: A situational model of L2 confidence and affiliation. The Modern Language Journal, 82, 545-562.

Macnamara, J. (1969). How can one measure the extent of a person’s bilingual proficiency? In L.G. Kelly, Description and Measurement of Bilingualism: an international seminar (pp. 79-119). Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

McCroskey, J. C. (1977). Oral communication apprehension: A summary of recent theory and research. Human Communication Research, 4, 78–96.

McCroskey, J. C. (1982). Communication competence and performance: A research and pedagogical perspective. Communication Education, 31(1), 1-7.

McCroskey, J. C. (1992). Reliability and validity of the willingness to communicate scale. Communication Quarterly, 40(1), 16-25.

McCroskey, J. C., & Baer, J. E. (1985). Willingness to communicate: The construct and its measurement. Paper presented at the annual convention of the Speech Communication Association, Denver, CO.

McCroskey, J. C., & Beatty, M. J. (1986). Oral communication apprehension. In W. H. Jones, J. M. Cheek, & S. R. Briggs (Eds.), Shyness: Perspectives on research and treatment (pp. 279-293). New York, NY: Springer Science & Business Media.

McCroskey, J. C., & Daly, J. A. (1984). Avoiding communication: Shyness, reticence, and communication apprehension. New York: Sage.

McCroskey, J. C., & Richmond, V. P. (1990). Willingness to communicate: Differing cultural perspectives. Southern Journal of Communication, 56(1), 72-77.

Meyer, H. (2008). The pedagogical implications of L1 use in the L2 classroom. Maebashi Kyoai Gakuen College Ronsyu, 8, 147-159.

Mirhasani, A., & Jafarpour-Mamaghani, H. (2009). Code switching and Iranian EFL Learners’ Oral Proficiency. Journal of Teaching English as a Foreign Language and Literature, 1(2), 21-31.

Momenian, M., & Samar, R. G. (2011). Functions of code-switching among Iranian advanced and elementary teachers and students. Educational Research and Reviews, 6(13), 769-777.

Nunan, D. (1999). Second Language Teaching & Learning. Florence, KY: Heinle & Heinle.

Olmo-castillo, W. N. (2014). Teachers’ attitudes towards code switching within a bilingual classroom. (Master's thesis). Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.brockport.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1394&context=ehd_theses

Palacios, L. (1998). Foreign language anxiety and classroom environment: A study of Spanish university students (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). The University of Texas, Austin, USA.

Peng, J. (2007). Willingness to communicate in an L2 and integrative motivation among college students in an intensive English language program in China. University of Sydney Papers in TESOL, 2(1), 33-59.

Piasecka, K. (1988). The bilingual teacher in the ESL classroom. In S. Nicholls & E. Hoadley-Maidment (Eds.), Current issues in teaching English as a second language to adults (pp. 97–103). London: Edward Arnold.

Poplack, S. (1980). Sometimes I’ll start a sentence in Spanish y termino en espanol: toward a typology of code-switching1. Linguistics, 18(7), 581-618.

Redinger, D. (2010). Language attitudes and code-switching behaviour in a multilingual educational context: the case of Luxembourg.  (Ph.D dissertation). Retrieved from http://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/43239.pdf

Reyes, I. (2004). Language practices and socialization in early bilingual childhood. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association, San Diego.

Rezvani, E., & Rasekh, A. (2011). Code-switching in Iranian Elementary EFL Classrooms: An Exploratory Investigation. English Language Teaching, 4(1), 18-25.

Rolin-Ianziti, J., & Brownlie, S. (2002). Teacher use of learners' native language in the foreign language classroom. Canadian Modern Language Review, 58(3), 402-426.

Romaine, S. (1995). Bilingualism (2nd Ed.). Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Rubin, J., & Thompson, I. (1994). How to Be a More Successful Language Learner (2nd edition). Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.

Rukh, S. (2014). A comparative study of students' attitude towards EFL teachers' code-switching/code-mixing to L1: a case of commerce and English discipline students. International Journal of Research in Social Sciences, 4(3), 526-539.

Schweers Jr, W. (1999). Using L1 in the L2 Classroom. English Teaching Forum, 37(2), 6-9.

Scotton, C. and Yule, W. (1977). Bilingual strategies: the social functions of code-switching. In W. Zhu, (ed.), Translated Articles of Sociolinguistics (pp. 199-217). Beijing: Peking University Press.

Sert, O. (2005). The Functions of Code-Switching in ELT Classrooms. Online Submission, 11(8), 112-119.

Skehan, P. (1989). Individual Differences in Second Language Learning. London, UK: Edward Arnold.